© 2020 Howard Rollin

Eleventh Edition - updated 02/02/2020 (28th Year)

First Edition - 1992

This is not a Jews for Jesus website, nor does it contain any proselytizing information.



IMPORTANT: Although you may find particular chapters more interesting at first glance, please read this document in the order it is published for thorough appreciation and comprehension. Please note that "highlighted" underlined names, words, and sentences are provided as important web links and they act like extensive footnotes. You should click on them, and then use your back button to return to this document at the point where you left it. If a link doesn't work, also use your back button to return to this document and send me an email so that I can fix the problem. Please note that the name of G-d will always appear with a hyphen that will replace at least one letter within the name. In order not to take G-d's name in vain and to always keep me aware of G-d's presence, I have published it that way. The completely typed name could be accidentally deleted within the website or printed and then accidentally discarded. That, in my opinion, would be an improper use of the name of the Alm-ghty. Lastly, there are only a few graphics, links to videos, and pictures provided (just solid information). I hope you find this document stimulating in thought, and I'm looking forward to your feedback and opinions as I welcome you to "The Gap!"


To help you find what you're looking for within this long webpage, please use the outstanding search tool located right before you on your computer keyboard. By pressing the "Ctrl" button along with the letter "F" simultaneously, you'll open a search box on your screen for use in this document only. This is the simplest and quickest search tool available.



This document is the culmination of more than 45 years (since 1974) of significant religious study. Even though its length is barely that of a short story, the time necessary to produce this document has been substantial. Anyone who knows me, would probably never think of me as an author of an important text. In fact, I've never written anything very significant. I suppose G-d works in mysterious ways.

During 1992, I labored over many changes and revisions, and I was concerned about the possible embarrassment that the premature release of an incomplete edition might cause. However, I was so anxious to share my thoughts and ideas with local rabbis, that I acted a bit hastily. I needed feedback, and I hoped that at least one rabbi of the several who received an initial copy would contact me to discuss it at length. I received one very short telephone call from one rabbi, who said it was "interesting." The only other feedback I received was a note in the mail from another rabbi, who wrote me only four lines including "keep up the good work." Well, I guess what you are about to read is not only "the good work," but "the better work."

Although I am not a prophet, there have been times during the past 46 years when I have sensed a divine presence. This sensation has occurred most notably when I was thinking about the subjects of this document or during its development. That divine presence was most noticeable when I touched the "Western Wall" in Jerusalem in 1975 on my first trip to Israel. It felt as though I had been touched by the hand of G-d, confirming to me that I was "going in the right direction." I therefore thank G-d for constantly giving me the confidence, support, and faith in my convictions over the years to honestly pursue something as significant as what you are about to read.

I would like to acknowledge the late Rabbi B.C. Shloime Twerski for giving me the insight to precisely understand my Jewish heritage.

I would also like to thank the Intermountain Jewish News twice. I would like to thank the newspaper for publishing an article about the Noachide movement (which I had never heard of before) in February 1992. That article, which I read just after I began the first edition of this document, linked perfectly with my previous thoughts and confirmed my direction. I would also like to thank the newspaper for printing a letter from Dennis Ding (a subscriber) in December 1992, who happened to be a Noachide.

I would especially like to thank Dennis Ding for the wealth of information, including Vendyl Jones' outstanding book "Will The Real Jesus Please Stand," he gave to me. Also, our friendship gave to me the knowledge that Jew and Gentile can study together as G-d fearing people in a similar quest for spiritual truth.

I would like to give my greatest thanks and blessings to the late professor Vendyl Jones (the real Indiana Jones?) for his many years of study, research, and incredible archaeological work from which I have benefitted greatly. He was my mentor and "Rebbe!" Unfortunately, Vendyl passed away on December 27, 2010 before he could accomplish the greatest goal in his life. In the future, when his archaeological work concludes successfully by his followers and former students, Jews throughout the world will then recognize and acknowledge Vendyl as having been the true "Righteous Gentile" as prophesized by rabbinic sources/sages. In fact, the entire world will owe a debt of gratitude to him for helping to bring about the Messianic Age. I highly recommend that you read about Vendyl's archaeological discoveries and accomplishments by clicking on this sentence. Please note, however, that even though I highly endorsed and supported the work of Vendyl Jones, there were some minor differences that we had concerning Judaic interpretation. In my opinion, in order for Vendyl Jones to succeed in his extremely important archaeological endeavors, he had to endorse and somewhat placate the Orthodox Jewish community to continually receive their support. Without their support, he could not be successful. Also, although he wrote and published the outstanding and very unique book "Will the Real Jesus Please Stand" (Priority Publications Inc., 1983), he could not continue to fully endorse his own writings. Personally, I believe he acted most appropriately in this regard also because of Orthodox Jewish influences. However, I do believe wholeheartedly that his first book written in 1983 represented a unique understanding of the "Plural Covenant Concept," which truly helps us today to bridge the gap between Judaism and Christianity.

Lastly, I would like to thank my wife, Tilly, for putting up with my religious fervor and for helping me edit this document. She is a "shining light" to me, and I know that our 49-year marriage has been blessed by G-d.
























The Judeo-Christian controversy will be the main subject of this document. It is the intent of the author to expose the truths, the lies, and especially the confusion about these two religions because of their enormous impact on the development of western civilization. It should be pointed out that Islam, had it remained the way it was originally inspired by Mohammed, most likely would have been a belief of greater value. Unfortunately, many Moslems today are hate-filled and believe distortions of Mohammed's holy purpose. False interpretations of Mohammed's belief developed after his death, and that includes improper and unholy additions and deletions to the Qur'an that superseded what Mohammed actually believed and wrote about. It is not surprising that the western world only refers to a Judeo-Christian ethic and leaves out Islam. In order for the masses of Arabs, Africans, Asians, etc. to learn about monotheism, I believe G-d (through Mohammed) permitted this religion to develop. Unfortunately, Islam's true origin and some of its beliefs have been misunderstood and misinterpreted for centuries by its own adherents.

This document's purpose is to create a new middle-of-the-road approach to a more enlightening monotheistic belief by bridging the religious gap between Judaism and Christianity. I find it amazing that many people polarize themselves into religious corners believing that only their way is the right way. I do not wish to give that same impression, even though I create a religious hypothesis. In my opinion, there are important truths from most religions. The following are examples of some of those important truths concerning forgiveness and reconciliation. Please notice some of the similarities of thought from these different belief systems:

Subvert anger by forgiveness. Jainism. Samanasuttam 136

The best deed of a great man is to forgive and forget. Islam (Shiite). Nahjul Balagha, Saying 201

Where there is forgiveness, there is G-d Himself. Sikhism. Adi Granth, Shalok, Kabir, pg. 1372

If you efface and overlook and forgive, then lo! G-d is forgiving, merciful. Islam. Qur'an 64.14

The superior man tends to forgive wrongs and deals leniently with crimes. Confucianism. I Ching 40: Release

If you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. Christianity. Matthew 5.23-24

The Day of Atonement atones for sins against G-d, not for sins against man, unless the injured person has been appeased. Judaism. Mishnah, Yoma 8.9

Show endurance in humiliation and bear no grudge. Taoism. Treatise on Response and Retribution

You shall not take vengeance or bear any grudge against the sons of your own people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the L-rd. Judaism and Christianity. Leviticus 19.18


We need to keep an open mind and be prepared to accept new truths as they are exposed and proven to us. It is my hope that the reader will make an honest self-evaluation of his or her beliefs while exploring some new concepts. Some of these religious concepts and beliefs are actually thousands of years old. I don't have all the answers, and I would appreciate anyone's criticism, addition, or contribution to this work.

Although I am not a rabbi, I feel I have enough wisdom and knowledge to present some new facts about the Jewish faith. Some people who will read this document might initially say that "it's just semantics." That would be true if the reader looks merely at the first few pages of this document and does so in a superficial manner. I believe there is a deeper, more important meaning that becomes evident in the later pages.

I hope that non-Jews, especially Christians, will not find this document too objectionable. I am simply trying to state the facts as I interpret them.

Is it possible, however, for the main premises of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam to all be valid? Yes, somewhat. I believe that it is possible and that all three religions are valid to a certain point. However, only Judaism (in its original basic Hebraic form) was revealed by G-d Moses and to the entire House of Israel at Sinai. No other religion can make such a claim, and no other religion has replaced the House of Israel figuratively or spiritually. The revelation at Sinai tends to give more weight of validity to Judaism, but was Judaism (as we know it today) the actual religion given to Moses at Mount Sinai?

Since this document is relatively brief in covering the subjects involved, I reserve the right to further explain my reasoning for the conclusions provided herein. If you have any questions, please contact me to discuss these religious issues.

Table of Contents


In order to define Judaism, it will be necessary to start with the man most Jews today believe is the greatest prophet and "law giver." But was Moses a Jew, and did he practice the Jewish traditions as we know them today? If you were to ask any rabbi or any other Jew today, the answer would probably be "of course he was Jewish." This assumption and simple explanation is problematic. First of all, Moses' parents were both Levites. He was not born into the tribe of Judah. Please note, a descendant of Judah (a Jew) is a member of the HOUSE OF ISRAEL. However, a member of the HOUSE OF ISRAEL is not necessarily Jewish (a Jew).

Judah, one of the many sons of Jacob, was the very first Jew by the proof of his name Judah (simple logic). Therefore, Judah's father Jacob, grandfather Isaac, and great grandfather Abraham could not have been Jews. The name Jew hadn’t been created yet! This reasoning is, however, too simplistic to have important meaning by itself. It will make more sense when the underlying history and traditions of the Jewish people, as well as the entire "HOUSE OF ISRAEL," are explained. This group of people was composed of twelve tribes, which had inheritances of land, and one tribe, Levi (priests), which was given no land but dwelt among all of the other tribes.

Rehoboam, a son of King Solomon, was the last king of the undivided "House of Israel." Mainly because of high taxes imposed by King Rehoboam to support the Temple in Jerusalem, the ten northern tribes eventually seceded and became known as "Israel." The southern tribes, which included Judah, Benjamin, and most of Levi (who left the northern tribes and moved to Jerusalem and the Southern Kingdom soon after secession), were known collectively as "Judah."

The Assyrians were able to conquer the Northern Kingdom of Israel, which was militarily weak due to disunity with the southern kingdom, in 719 B.C.E. The correct year is 3205 in the Hebrew calendar (dating from Adam) which translates more correctly to 555 B.C.E. There is a 164-year discrepancy created during the era (error?) of the early church. "Israel" was taken into captivity approximately 133 years before the destruction of Solomon's Temple by the Babylonians, who succeeded the Assyrians. But without the Temple close by and because idolatry had already permeated their society, the northern kingdom tribes lost their identity. The Temple solidified the Hebrew faith and culture, as long as communication from Jerusalem and religious unification could be maintained. As a result of findings by some historians, it is now believed that some tribal members of the northern kingdom were eventually transplanted by the Assyrians (a nomadic people) to what are now parts of Europe. Many people who descended from pre-Roman Europe can state that, even though they are now Christian, they might actually be blood descendants of some of the ten lost tribes of Israel. The blood of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob has certainly been spread not only to Europe but also all around the world!

After the destruction of Solomon's Temple by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. (3338 in the Hebrew calendar, which translates more correctly to 422 B.C.E.), the southern kingdom of "Judah" was conquered and many of its inhabitants were taken into captivity for approximately 70 years. At the end of the captivity, some members of "Judah" returned to the holy land (in waves of returning migration) to live and rebuild the Temple. Those that returned moved primarily to the Judean hills, and they and their descendants have, since that time, been referred to as Judeans or "Jews." The term "Jew" is found in the Bible but not until after the separation of the northern and southern kingdoms and mostly after the destruction of the first Temple. The term Jew is, therefore, found long after the death of Moses. But why would Jews today assume that Moses was Jewish?

Jews can claim that they probably are blood descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (the entire "House of Israel"). But making up the southern kingdom of "Judah" (the ancestral home of today’s Jews) were groups of Jebusites, Calebites, Philistines, Hittites, Perizzites, Kenites, even Egyptians, and primarily certain descendants of Jacob including Simeonites, Reubenites, Benjaminites, Levites and, of course, Judahites (the great majority). All the descendants of the entire southern kingdom have since become identified as Jews, although some of them may not have been actual descendants of Judah, or any other son of Jacob except through inter-marriage and/or conversion. I believe the term "Jew" has a far greater meaning to the religion of the southern kingdom, than to direct descendancy.

During the approximate 70-year Babylonian captivity of the southern kingdom, the religion of Judaism began. The traditional Hebrew belief that G-d only existed within the walls of Solomon's Temple now became a belief that G-d was omnipresent. The Jews, unlike their northern kingdom counterparts, were mentally prepared for this belief by the prophets Isaiah and especially Jeremiah. This would help them to continue their faith in captivity and would also allow a monotheistic belief to develop worldwide and not just in the holy land. Some Jews, with their new faith of an omnipresent G-d, remained in diaspora. The synagogue was created in Babylon during captivity and other new traditions got started. Although Judaism basically began in Babylon, the Judaism of that captivity was far different from the Judaism that was to follow and was to be developed centuries later wherever Jews lived. As a matter of fact, the religious term "Judaism" didn't even exist until history reached the time of the common era. The religion of the "House of Israel" and eventually, the "Jews," originally had no name (nor did it need one) until it was necessary to differentiate between Christianity (the new belief system) and the traditional Hebraic religion. The term "Judaism" is a rabbinic creation of the common era (error?).

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. (3830) and the beginning of diaspora as we know it, Rabbinic Judaism took control. The rabbis of that time knew that without the Temple in Jerusalem, the synagogue would become a greater focal point in Judaism. But that would not be sufficient to keep the Jewish people unified. Over a period of many years, the rabbis had developed special laws concerning Jewish life, which would have to be religiously enforced in order to build a "fence" (protection) around Judaism. This basically helped to develop the "ghetto" mentality which would be reinforced by the non-Jewish world and force Jews into close-knit communities. Without a "fence of protection," this offshoot (Rabbinic Judaism) of the Hebrew faith would never have survived the past two thousand years. The rabbis had made specific interpretations from Biblical writings imposing new laws of life and procedures of faith. These interpretations are called the "Oral Law."

The Oral Law is claimed by rabbis to be equivalent, or in some cases superior, to the written Torah itself. Orthodox (talmudic) rabbis imply that you cannot read and understand the Torah if you don't accept and fully comprehend the Oral Law first. Rabbinic Judaism claims that the Oral Law was handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation from the time of Moses, when the Oral Law was given to Moses along with the written law at Mount Sinai. It could, therefore, be argued that Moses was a Jew because he gave the Oral Law to the "House of Israel" and inaugurated Judaism. However, there are no references in the Bible to substantiate the term "Judaism" or the hundreds of interpreted observances of an Oral Law before the destruction of the First Temple.

It's hard to believe that in all the generations from Moses until the eventual codification (writing of laws) of the Oral Law (Talmud), changes in this supposed Oral Law didn't take place. You could use the example of telling a story to a person seated next to you at a table and that person trying to tell the exact same story to the next person, and so on. By the time the story goes completely around the table and gets back to you (where it began), the content has changed somewhat from the original version. Therefore, if the Oral Law was perfect in Moses' era, then the eventual writing of the Talmud approximately 1700 years later couldn't have been perfectly accurate.

There have been a few factions of Jews (such as the Karaites) who have opposed or challenged the Oral Law, but these groups never had the numbers or lasting power to represent a threat to Rabbinic Judaism. It appears that it was G-d's intention that Judaism would evolve in the way it did, however faulty, in order for the last known descendants of the "People of the Book" to survive and rebuild Israel today for the soon-to-occur Messianic Age. Please note, and it should be pointed out emphatically, that the Talmud (the codified Oral Law) of the developing Rabbinic Judaism was the finest written body of laws that the world had ever seen. It covered practically every aspect of life, and it would stand against anything else man could ever create. But most of all, one should note that Jewish belief in one G-d never changed. What changed was the emphasis on the observances, customs, rituals, and traditions which define how an Israelite became Jewish, whether or not G-d commanded such interpreted observances.

What is Talmud? Since the written Torah (The Five Books of Moses) did not and could not completely explain everything in precise detail about the procedures of the Israelite belief system from Sinai, including the Tabernacle/Temple procedures, customs, etc., there had to be some other laws that would provide clarification. I believe that the original Oral Law (from Moses) was a much shorter version than what we know today. It was handed down verbally from Moses to his brother Aaron and the Levites (the priestly tribe to which they belonged), and it was not meant for all of the tribes of Israel. However, it does appear that the Talmud/Oral Law that we know today probably got its start at the beginning of the Hasmonean dynasty when Pharisaic Judaism was becoming established. It was at this time that the general population of Judea would start to receive knowledge and access to previously undisclosed religious information after the rededication of the Second Temple. This period of time spans from approximately 164 BCE through the beginning of the common era. Prior to this time, only the Levites had this knowledge which they handed down verbally to their descendants. The Oral Law in Judea eventually became known as the Jerusalem Talmud, whereas the Oral Law in Persia (which was necessary for those remaining in Persia from the Babylonian diaspora) became known as the Babylonian Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud is the greater of the two works of Talmud known to Jews today.

Today's Oral Law exists in the form of the written Mishnah (the Oral Law was codified at the beginning of the third century) and the very large Gemara, which is commentary on the Talmudic Law. The early Pharisees, representing what would eventually become Rabbinic Judaism, introduced their interpreted version of Torah Law to the Judean population, which had just overcome more than a century of pagan Greek domination. During the very secular rule of the Greek occupation, most Jews were practically without any proper religious knowledge or training. The Judeans, in many cases, were forced to adopt Greek culture. Even the Torah was translated into Greek (Septuagint) during that time, since many Judeans had lost the knowledge of the Hebrew language and more ancient Israelite customs. In addition, very few Judeans had access to the Torah. Copies of the Torah in those days were few and far between.

Please note that the early Pharisees had no authority from G-d to introduce new interpretation of the Torah to the general population, and the end result (many years later) was the expansion of Torah beyond its original written boundaries. This expansion of written law (Talmud) is what the previously-mentioned Karaites were opposed to. From the time of Moses, only the Levites were authorized to preach the law (basically from the street corners) to the Tribes of Israel in each tribe’s domain, and Israelite life appears to have been much simpler. During the First Temple period, there was no such place as a synagogue. During the Second Temple period, the Sadducees, who opposed the Pharisees, represented the traditional Temple worship and ancient procedures, which would eventually end with the destruction of that Second Temple in 70 CE. These two opposing groups tried to take control of the hearts and minds of the people of Judea after the conquering of the Assyrian Greeks in 164 BCE. The Levitical Priesthood was somewhat fractured as the result of the pagan Greek domination of Judea up until 164 BCE. There were Sadducean Levites, as well as Pharisaic Levites.

Unfortunately during the Hasmonean period, the Sadducees had an internal organizational problem, since the installation of their high priest, who (at that time in history) was politically appointed, was improper and invalid according to G-d's law. The only proper high priest must be, not only a descendant of Aaron (the first high priest during Moses' time), but also a descendant of Zadok, the high priest of King David and King Solomon. In fact, the name Sadducee is probably derived from the name Zadok. In-fighting among the Sadducees, as well as against the Pharisees, for control of the high priesthood resulted in the forced dismissal (upon threat of death) of the true Zadok heirs to the priesthood. Also, the true Zadok heirs (Zadokim) possessed the secrets of the Temple treasures and the procedures of Temple worship that were handed down from Moses to Aaron and the high priests leading up to Zadok and his descendants. The rightful heirs (Zadokim) were forced to leave Jerusalem upon the threat of death, and they wound up in Damascus (Syria) and in the caves of Qumran near the shores of the Dead Sea. The Temple Scroll and the Copper Scroll (more about this specific scroll later) found in Qumran during the late 1940's and early 1950's somewhat confirm the identity of the leaders of the ancient Qumran community. They are now referred to as the Essenes (Ishiyim) or possibly and more correctly Ebionites (Evyonim), which are also discussed later.

Pharisaic and Sadducean influence within the Hasmonean dynasty resulted in changes to the Temple traditions, thus questioning the actual holiness of the Second Temple. It should be noted that the Second Temple never had a "true" Holy of Holies, since it did not have the Ark of the Covenant and many other First Temple artifacts. Those holy artifacts were removed and hidden at least 7 years before the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 3331 (429 BCE). Those artifacts were never part of the Second Temple. In fact, the Second Temple did not have the presence of the Shechinah (the fire and smoke presence which represented the Glory of G-d and the L-rd's presence). Also, the lunar Jewish calendar that we observe today is the result of a very unfortunate error by a Hasmonean Sanhedrin (high court) that replaced the true Torah Solar Calendar. Until a new Sanhedrin is established, Judaism is forced to maintain an improper pagan lunar calendar. That's why the months of the present-day Jewish calendar contain the names of Babylonian/Persian deities, such as Tishrei, Kislev, Tammuz, Elul, etc. According to the Bible, some of the original names of the months were Aviv, Ziv, Ethanim, and Bul. When did G-d state that there was a necessity in renaming the months, especially with non-Hebraic pagan names? In addition, according to the true Torah Solar Calendar, the physical new year began at the vernal equinox (Aviv - the beginning of spring). When the Jews returned to Judea after the Babylonian captivity, they brought back newly-established pagan traditions from that first diaspora. Other Jewish customs observed today may also have pagan roots, but it’s hard to separate what’s holy and what’s not.

If you find that the above few paragraphs are confusing and hard to understand, don't be alarmed. The history of the 2 centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple is very incomplete and thus inadequate for proper comprehension. All that we can be sure of is that the Second Temple period was marked by improper religious leadership and much confusion. You know the story! “Put two Jews in a room and you’ll have three opinions.” What Jews know today is the result of the problematic reestablishment of the Second Temple. That improper reestablishment eventually resulted in the somewhat faulty religion of Judaism that has evolved over the centuries until the present.

Some years ago, before his death, I had the opportunity to meet with the highly respected and renowned Rabbi B.C. Shloime Twerski to discuss Judaism. I had known Rabbi Twerski since 1968. At this final meeting in the 1980's, the rabbi startled me when he said "Howard, you're not Jewish." He explained to me that in order to be Jewish, I would have to dedicate my life to the principles of the Talmud. He said that Judaism is "Rabbinic Judaism," and only those who adhere to the strictest observance of Talmudic law have a right to be called Jews. (This is basically the same argument given by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis in early 1997, which led to a furor over "who is a Jew?") If I wanted to become Jewish, I would first have to study the Hebrew language of two thousand years ago (not modern Hebrew). That would be the only way I could comprehend the rabbis of that time who wrote the Talmud, which is the foundation of Rabbinic Judaism. He also stated that most other Jewish descendants around the world and including all of the other rabbis I knew, were not really Jewish. In Rabbi Twerski's mind, there is no such thing as Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc. forms of Judaism. There is only one Judaism, and that is the Judaism of the rabbis of the Talmud.

As I left Rabbi Twerski, I felt perplexed about what he had told me. But later, I realized that he was right. I now consider myself as being religiously an "Israelite," although I am a Jew as a descendant of the Southern Kingdom of Judah. I will not conform to all of the teachings of the Talmudic rabbis, because I don't accept the entire oral law as being divinely inspired. I cannot believe in a tradition-based religion created by men and not G-d.

Table of Contents


Was Moses Jewish? Absolutely not! Not only was he not a descendant of Judah, he couldn't have observed the traditions that have been imposed upon Jews as we know these traditions today. So, what was the religion of Moses and Israel in the Bible?

The Bible is the word of G-D given through the prophets. Moses, the greatest prophet, gave G-D's written law, which is contained in the TORAH, to ISRAEL. From my studies, I have determined that some Mosaic Laws were created by G-d as permanent regulations. But many laws appear to be temporary and were designed for the people of that generation and for a period of time for some, but not all, generations to follow in the future (more about this later).

The Israelites in Moses' era were basically a primitive lot, as were most other people in the world then. Also, the Israelites had just emerged from hundreds of years of slavery in pagan Egypt. After suffering so many years of inhumane treatment, they were essentially an uncivilized, disorganized group. In order for the Israelites of Moses' generation to be able to relate to G-d, it seems that G-d established very unique laws and regulations that could be understood and observed by such a group. Since sacrifice was the general pagan religious practice of most cultures, is it not possible that G-d had to satisfy the Israelites' barbaric instincts by allowing a holy nonhuman sacrificial system?

In later books of the Bible, prophets stated that G-d was less interested in the shedding of blood to remove sin. In Moses' day, the repentant sinner usually, but not always, offered an animal sacrifice. Isaiah and Jeremiah started a trend to wean the remaining remnant of the House of Israel (the Kingdom of Judah) further away from sacrifice, to prepare the people to survive as a nation (without the Temple) while in captivity. Prophets such as Samuel, Solomon, Hosea, Micah, etc., also placed the emphasis, not on sacrifice, but on obedience. Was G-d telling Israel that since they were more intelligent and less primitive than their ancestors at Sinai, the Laws of Moses would eventually change over time (but obviously, not all at once)? The termination of the Mosaic Laws of sacrifice was directly due to the destruction of the First Temple (temporary) and the Second Temple (permanent through our generation). It appears that this was necessary to stop the carnage of sacrifice that was needed only for a more primitive people of the past. The learned physician Maimonides (RaMBaM) supported this belief, as explained by the late Dr. J.H. Hertz, former Chief Rabbi of the British Empire and the editor of the Soncino Edition of the Pentateuch and Haftorahs (see page 562 for clarification). Therefore, this proves that some Mosaic Laws are neither permanent nor infallible. What is more important, the concept of TORAH or just its written words? Those present at Mt. Sinai knew because they were eyewitnesses. Future generations have lost sight of the knowledge, the experience, and the mystical miracle of revelation (as described in this document's (Addendum) chapter The Most Incredible Machine).

If a law was to be observed forever, it was stated that way explicitly in the Bible as a "statute forever," a "perpetual statute," or "an everlasting statute." A good example would be the observance of the Sabbath, which would be one of only a handful of laws, not 613 commandments (more about this later). An example of a Torah Law that should not be observed anymore would be the law about the "stubborn and rebellious son" who should be stoned to death (Deuteronomy 21). Also, the Torah states that if your wife, other close family members, and even friends entice you toward a new religion, you shall kill them (Deuteronomy 13). In addition, traditional Judaism should eliminate interpreted rituals (the "fence of protection") of the laws that just don't apply anymore. Please note, this is not an endorsement of Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist, Humanistic, etc. forms of Judaism (more about this later).

Jews are intelligent enough to realize what is important to sustain meaningful, ethical, G-d fearing lives, not only for themselves, but as a "LIGHT UNTO THE NATIONS" and thus setting an example for the world. The House of Israel, as the Messianic People, should be teaching and preparing the world for the Messianic Age, not hiding within their communities to observe (what Gentiles perceive as) mysterious and weird traditions. The diaspora of the Jews should have been (and can be) a much greater positive educational experience for Gentiles. Christianity, as we generally know it today, is the result of a deliberate separation between the two faiths. That forced separation was caused originally by the early church, but the Jews have done very little to counteract it. Instead, Jews have preferred the policy of "we'll leave you alone, if you'll leave us alone." Anti-Semitism has been the continuing result of that separation.

From the time of the Hasmoneans, who inaugurated the non-biblical holiday known as the Festival of Lights (Chanukah) in approximately 164 B.C.E., and until the destruction of the Second Temple 234 years later, Israel (then called Judea) was comprised mainly of two factions. There were other factions or sects, but they were not as influential from a historical viewpoint. As stated previously, they were the Pharisees (representing what would become Rabbinic Judaism) and the Sadducees (representing the traditional Temple worship and sacrificial customs which were coming to an end). It appears that G-d wanted the Temple to be destroyed and diaspora to begin, because Israel had not become and would never develop into the type of kingdom G-d wanted (to usher in the Messianic Era at that time). The reestablishment of Israel in the 20th century seems to be a sign from G-d that will eventually lead to the Messianic age. It would take more than two thousand years of worldwide education and the spread of monotheism, although in somewhat flawed forms, to bring us to the verge of Messianism. But the education and religious practices of the Jews, however, will have to change in order to bring about a peaceful beginning of the Messianic Age.

The "fence" around Judaism is slowly, but surely, coming down today. Most branches of Judaism (except the Ultra Orthodox) including Modern Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist will probably dissolve or change to a form that G-d fearing Jews will accept. Rabbis have no real answers to the problems of, not only their dwindling congregations, but also the lack of support for the synagogue, intermarriage with non-Jews, disinterest, and conversion away from Judaism. Rabbis should have placed their educational emphasis on G-d and the Bible's prophetic words instead of just traditional customs and rituals.

Traditional Rabbinic Judaism has lost its appeal in our society because Jews don't live in ghettos anymore. The need for a "fence" in diaspora is no longer valid. If and when the Jewish people need to protect their lives in the future, they can move to the State of Israel. This will mark the end of diaspora and, unfortunately, the end of the Jewish attempt at bringing Messianism to the world peaceably. From that point on, Messianism will occur through unfortunate catastrophic calamities as interpreted from the Bible by Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scholars. Without the Jew, the world will essentially lack moral, ethical leadership. Historically, wherever Jews lived in peace with their Gentile neighbors, those countries prospered during those good times. Conversely, wherever Jews were grossly mistreated and forced out of their communities, those specific countries suffered greatly.

Orthodox rabbis believe that Rabbinic Judaism is the correct religion for all Jews. But why would G-d have allowed the many tragedies that have befallen Jews during the past two thousand years? Doesn't it seem ironic that approximately six million of G-d's "chosen people" would die in the Holocaust in order for the Nation of Israel to come back into existence? It seems that the diaspora was, and still is, a disciplinary action from G-d to the Jews, as are all the calamities that have befallen them during the past two thousand five hundred years. And more calamities will occur until the Jews realize that believing in G-d and being a "LIGHT UNTO THE NATIONS" are more important than observing man-made traditions.

Following the destruction of the Second Temple, the resulting diaspora and the development of Christianity would eventually teach the world to become somewhat less barbaric. This happened through the spread of the knowledge of the one true G-d (mainly through Christianity and Islam), however error-filled the knowledge, belief, and customs might become.

Table of Contents


Unfortunately, Christians misinterpret the historical duration and purpose of the blood sacrifice, and believe wholeheartedly that "without the shedding of blood, there can be no remission of sin." Most Christians haven't understood that the later prophets (long after Moses) changed the focus of forgiveness of sin. The new focus was based upon the future deeds of the person committing the sin. Repentance should be a moral decision by sinners to physically observe G-d's laws, correct and compensate for mistakes, and abandon evil ways and intentions. Biblical emphasis has always been placed on the human ability to do good.

Most G-d fearing Christians have tried to follow biblical law as churches interpret it and preach it from the pulpit. But many Christians believe that if they commit a sin against another person, Jesus forgives them for the sin without the need for restitution or making amends. This kind of "irresponsible belief" has allowed many so-called Christians to commit atrocities for centuries without having to rectify or compensate anyone for their evil actions.

For Christians, Jesus was the sacrificial lamb, and he became the replacement for the Temple sacrifice after the destruction of the second Temple. Did G-d intend for Christians to believe the way they do, because they descended primarily from longer-established pagan traditions and more primitive/barbaric lifestyles than the ancient Israelites and then the Second Temple Jews? IN ORDER FOR THE BELIEF IN ONE G-D TO SPREAD WORLDWIDE, DID G-D, THEREFORE, ESTABLISH A SPECIAL AND SEPARATE "PLURAL COVENANT" FOR THE GENTILES? (The previous sentence could very well be the most important statement of this entire document.) And was this new "Plural Covenant" twisted by the Greco-Roman mind set of the early church into deviant versions to placate and thus convert pagan people more readily to something that resembles monotheism? These questions might also apply to the masses that eventually embraced Islam.

The original concept of the "Plural Covenant" is probably the most logical explanation for the development of Christianity. It provided a basic and simple religious belief (by avoiding the cumbersome and difficult to observe Rabbinic Judaism) in order for the masses of Gentiles to pursue monotheism. The New (Plural) Covenant provided a method utilizing a blood requirement (from Jesus) that would remove the burden of sin from a Christian's life. As stated previously (from Biblical sources), the Jews had alleviated the need for blood sacrifices over a period of many centuries leading up to the Common Era. However, the Gentiles were just getting started in monotheism and would need a blood sacrifice in order for them to relate to G-d. Vendyl Jones, in his book "Will the Real Jesus Please Stand," fully explained the "Plural Covenant Concept" (which he originally defined). Also, Orthodox Rabbi Irving Greenberg more recently wrote "For the Sake of Heaven and Earth - The New Encounter between Judaism and Christianity" which promotes his understanding of Pluralism between Judaism and Christianity. I highly recommend that you read both books. Unfortunately, Vendyl Jones' book (originally published in 1983 by Priority Publications) is out of print, and it is difficult to obtain at a reasonable price, whereas Rabbi Greenberg's book is new and easily obtainable. If you are seriously interested in obtaining a copy of Vendyl's book, you should utilize all Internet search engines and library systems.

As stated previously, the early non-Jewish Christian community was heavily influenced by pagan customs. Christianity and the eventual worldwide spread of knowledge of the one G-d concept might not have happened in a Jewish form. Rabbinic Judaism was too difficult and a burden to observe and too much of an educational, civilized belief, as compared to what the non-Jews had devised within a century after the death of Jesus. At least the pagan version of Christianity that was created was somewhat more civilized than anything else the non-Jews had up until that period of history.

Gentiles have always been steps behind the Jews in eliminating their pagan ways of life. The doctrines and rituals of Christian denominations are a continuing reminder of that fact to most Jews. Throughout history, the Jewish people have always placed education in a much higher regard than their non-Jewish counterparts. The Yeshivas that developed two thousand years ago resembled what we would call colleges and universities today. Education was one of the major reasons that success in the business world has come much easier for Jews. This has caused Christian jealousy toward Jews and has continued to fuel the fires of anti-Semitism. To a certain degree, this is also true today within Islamic circles as well. Many hate-filled Islamic believers resent the cultural/scientific advances of the Jews. That's why Israel "sticks out like a sore thumb" to the surrounding Arabs in the Middle East.

Most traditional Christians who befriend Jews do so with the hope that they will eventually convert the Jew to Christianity. Otherwise, in their belief, their Jewish friend is "going to hell" for failing to accept Jesus as his/her personal savior. Today, however, those Christians who respect the valid covenants of Israel are not anti-Semitic. But Christianity has been a missionary religion and for many centuries has endorsed anti-Semitism as an official position of the Church. Jews that didn't convert were punished or killed. The Inquisition is just one example of many incidents that have occurred during the past two thousand years. Presently, the Jewish community is starting to sense a harmonious coexistence with some sects of Christianity in the western world. Many of the "walls of misunderstanding" between the faiths are apparently coming down. But should economic times become extremely poor again (as in the great depression), we could be witness to a rise in anti-Semitism that could parallel some of the horrors of the Holocaust. Will those Christians (RIGHTEOUS GENTILES/CHRISTIAN ZIONISTS) who have supported and protected Jews continue to do so when faced with this type of religious dilemma?

According to some fundamentalist Christian doctrines, there is a belief that shortly before the return of Jesus (the second coming) there will be a time of great tribulation in the world. Great calamities will befall the earth, and then Jesus will save the world from self-destruction just in time. Just before the calamities begin, "Rapture" will occur. "Rapture" is the supposed gathering up in the sky by Jesus of all the believers still alive on earth to go to heaven and avoid the great tribulation. It shouldn't be surprising that if there isn't such a thing as a pre-millennial (pre-Messianic) "Rapture," those who believe in it will probably take out their frustrations on the Jews and blame them. That would be "par for the course." Thus, we could have another despicable round of extreme anti-Semitism. A complete end to diaspora could occur if the above scenario ensues. All the Jews would be forced to seek refuge in Israel to survive.

Today, more and more Christians are finally coming to the realization that Jesus was an observant Jew. Most Christians and some Jews still don't know that the earliest groups of believers in Jesus as the Messiah and/or the True Prophet predicted by Moses were actually Jewish. The most interesting and, unfortunately, least influential group was known as the Ebionites, but we possess very little information about this group of observant Jews. What we do know is that the Ebionites were part of the Jewish community until many of them fled Jerusalem before the Roman/Jewish War began in 66 C.E. They believed Jesus was the True Prophet predicted by Moses, and that Jesus had prophesied the destruction of the Temple and the end of the sacrificial system. They abhorred the slaughter of animals and practiced vegetarianism. The Ebionites opposed the positions of Paul, a Nazarene (Jewish heretical believer in Jesus), who promoted the elimination of much Jewish law for the sake of Gentile conversions. Today, Christian denominations proclaim Jesus to be not only a suffering Messiah, but a deity as the son of G-d, born of a virgin, a part of the trinity, the forgiver of sins through his shedding of blood on the cross, etc. The Ebionites could never have accepted these concepts which grew out of Nazarene beliefs and still be included in Judaic society.

What happened to the Ebionites? If their belief (that Jesus was the True Prophet) was not abhorrent to the Jewish community in the early years following Jesus' death, why did the Ebionites cease to exist? During the past two thousand years, many Messiahs (like Shabbatai Zevi) have been proclaimed by Jewish communities. To believe that someone is the Messiah, even if you are wrong, has never been a violation of Jewish belief. What is wrong, according to Judaism, is when the Messiah becomes the focus of worship and is proclaimed a deity. That would be idolatrous. The Ebionites believed that Jesus was the True Prophet and might eventually return with the power of G-d. They could not have believed in his deity. They opposed the teachings of Paul (deification, abrogation of law) to the non-Jews. Today, we automatically associate belief in Jesus with the trinity, forgiveness of sin through Jesus' blood, and other Christian concepts. These were not the beliefs of the Ebionites. These were the beliefs that eventually evolved from the Nazarene Gentiles.

In the year 132 C.E., the Bar Kochba revolt began to drive the Romans out of Judea/Israel. After some initial success during 132-133 C.E., Rabbi Akiba declared that Bar Kochba was the Messiah and that all Jews should rally behind the banner of Bar Kochba. Although the Ebionites had previously supported the political revolt, they refused to proclaim and now support Bar Kochba as their Messiah. It appears that they believed that only Jesus would return as their leader. Although the Bar Kochba revolt was crushed by the Romans and Rabbi Akiba was wrong in determining Bar Kochba as the Messiah, the Ebionites were greatly blamed for the failure of the revolt and were permanently expelled from Judaic society. Without the "fence of protection" of Rabbinic Judaism, the Ebionites lost their Jewish identity and disappeared as a group into the Arabian world, mostly in eastern Syria. But Ebionite beliefs did not completely disappear. According to the German Jewish writer Hans-Joachim Schoeps, the religion which Mohammed founded at the beginning of his public activity was very Ebionite (Jewish Christianity, 1969, Fortress Press).

Rabbi Akiba's error caused Messianism to develop into Nazarene Christianity without Jewish leadership. Had the Ebionites remained within Judaism, we would now have a better understanding of Jesus from the Jewish perspective. Western society might have evolved with the emphasis on the more humane Jewish ideology rather than the eventual Christian intolerance. DID RABBI AKIBA INADVERTENTLY CAUSE ALMOST 1900 YEARS OF ANTI-SEMITISM AND WORLD SUFFERING?

Today, there are growing numbers of Jews for Jesus. None of the Hebrew Christian congregations or Messianic Jews are accepted by Jewish communities. There is a tremendous difference between the Ebionites of the early centuries and the Jews for Jesus today. The Jews for Jesus worship him like the Gentile Nazarenes did and the way Gentile Christians do today.

We now know what happened to the Ebionites and why they ceased to exist. But why is there so little information available about them or about the early years after the death of Jesus?

Table of Contents



After the Ebionites lost their influence and until the fourth century, non-Jewish Nazarenes controlled the development of the new faith. Many different sects and theologies flourished throughout the Mediterranean region. In 312 C.E., Constantine, emperor of Rome, began his conversion to Christianity. This would eventually lead to the creation of the Roman Catholic Church (the Holy Roman Empire) many years later. To control this new faith and establish one central authority, Constantine presided over the Council of Nicaea in 325 C.E. He invoked his will upon the religious leaders who were coerced into attending. He made his concept of Christianity (as opposed to the competing concept of Arianism which was against the deification of Jesus) as palatable as possible for the masses of pagans under his rule who observed Mithraism and other idolatrous/pagan beliefs.

Mithraism preceded Christianity and had similarities to other pagan religions (such as Zoroastrianism) which existed during the Roman Empire and earlier. Some historians assert that Mithraism evolved from an earlier pagan belief, called the "Babylonian Mystery Religion," which originated (not surprisingly) in Egypt. There appear to be many similarities between Mithraism and Christianity. They share the same holy day (Sunday), similar Christmas and Easter festivals, and similar sacraments such as Mithras being depicted as carrying a lamb on his shoulder. The virgin Mother Isis could easily be compared with the virgin Mother Mary. Petra, the sacred rock of Mithraism could be identified with Peter. Also, the robe of Mithra was always described as in one piece and may be the source for the seamless robe worn by Jesus at the time of his crucifixion. Doesn't it seem odd to think that G-d would have patterned Christianity after pagan traditions? No, because the Gentiles at that time would not have had a way to relate to the one true G-d. {The same was true with Israel after hundreds of years of slavery in Egypt. It seems that G-d had to placate both the Children of Israel and eventually the Gentiles to fully establish the one G-d concept on earth.}

Mithraism was a popular Roman pagan state religion during Constantine's reign. As the emperor of Rome and a newly-practicing Christian (with an upbringing in such pagan beliefs), Constantine could make final decisions in the development and future of Christianity by blending the different beliefs together as one. He forced the collection and destruction of religious written material, (including most Ebionite writings) that opposed his pagan way of thinking. That is why little information about early messianic beliefs is available today.

Can we trust the Roman Catholic Church (the eventual successor to the Roman Empire)?

Through the centuries, the church has deliberately destroyed or hidden much information. We now know that many gospels were written well after Jesus' death and reedited by non-Jewish, pagan-influenced believers (the monks of the earlier church) after the fourth century. They deliberately distorted facts that many great modern-day theologians have revealed, thus raising questions about the accuracy of the New Testament and who the real Jesus was. Thus, Constantine, his Christian successors (future emperors), and the eventual Roman Catholic Church have handed down to us pagan perversions of potentially significant texts. If the Ebionites had survived within Judaism, we might have had more authentic, original writings such as the Hebrew "Even Bohan/Ben-Tov" text of Matthew. Please note that within the title of this very important text is the name "Even Bohan." Even Bohan Ben-Ruben is the full name of a geographical point of reference (a rock outcropping which provided a border point for 3 tribes of Israel) near the caves of Qumran by the Dead Sea. Although the title of this text ascribes the name Ben-Tov (his full name is Shem-Tov Ben Yitzhaq Bar-Shaprut, called Ben-Tov of Tudela in the late 14th century), the original author of this text was a member of the Qumran community of two thousand years ago (more about this community later). Please note that the ancient Hebrew writing within the green background of this document is supposedly representative of the Even Bohan text.

When the Reformation occurred in the 16th century, Catholics revolted against their own church. This happened, not only because of the extensive corruption in the Catholic church, but also because the clergy had deliberately (for centuries) prohibited education for the masses of peasants. Unfortunately, the Christian Protestant denominations that emerged and developed over the past four centuries as a result of the Reformation, became basically nothing more than offshoots of Catholicism. The Reformation's New Testament was generally no different from the Catholic one. The new forms of Christianity would now encourage the reading of the Bible, and the Bible was translated into local languages. But the newly-developing Protestant denominations assumed the Catholic New Testament was truthful when, in fact, it was and still is the tool of paganistic Roman Emperors. It is not the intent of the author to depict the New Testament as a complete fabrication containing no truths. Instead, the intent is to convey the concept that the source of the New Testament's final codification can not and should not be trusted. The New Testament as we know it today is neither 100% authentic nor accurate. One additional proof of this is the fact that Torah/Bible Codes do not work in the New Testament.

During the past 2 centuries, many new Christian denominations have been established. They profess a return to the true concepts of Messianic belief, and give the impression that they are more accurate in their belief and customs. The Worldwide Church of G-d (when it was under the leadership of Herbert W. Armstrong) and the Jehovah's Witnesses are perfect examples of relatively new denominations that are continually attacking the traditional values, not only of the Catholic Church, but also of many other Christian denominations. The Worldwide Church of G-d and Jehovah's Witnesses have instructed their members not to observe the traditional Christmas and Easter, because these very basic Christian holy days are based in obvious paganism. Several years ago, The Worldwide Church of G-d even endorsed Saturday (the Jewish Sabbath) as the day of rest stating that Sunday was chosen because it was, basically, the pagan-day worship of the sun. (Since then, the Worldwide Church of G-d has "flip-flopped" on this principle.) These are examples of the many attacks against traditional Christian beliefs. Unfortunately, the Worldwide Church of G-D and Jehovah's Witnesses (as well as all other Christian denominations) still assume the truth in and accept the New Testament verbatim, along with its Roman deceptive pagan distortions. The New Testament (as we generally know it today) has no proof of accuracy nor corroborative authenticity.

Most of what is written in the New Testament does have great value and could be prophetic, but it's hard to separate the fact from the fiction and the holy from the idolatrous. What we do know is that Constantine implemented a permanent, pagan Messianic belief for the non-Jew that would be completely separate from Judaism. His doctrines that Judaism was evil and wrong provoked hatred toward the Jews, thus institutionalizing and legalizing anti-Semitism. And this hatred has sanctioned the development of bigotry and other insidious prejudices by Christians who have been "irresponsible believers." If there is supposed to be an "Antichrist" (from the New Testament), a religious deceiver of the world, then Constantine and the Church's Nicaean Fathers have certainly fit the bill.

Although the previous paragraph and much of this chapter appear to be very heavy-handed in a negative way against Catholicism and certain other denominations of traditional Christianity, it is still the author's intent to show the positive aspects of what Christianity has done to spread the word of G-d around the world. As stated previously, if not for the development of Christianity (and even Islam), the world would be a much worse place to live in, since Judaism would never have successfully educated the world to the belief in one G-d. Over the past 2,000 years, the Jews have (as a group) failed to be a "light unto the nations." In-fighting by the Jews of 2,000 years ago resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple and the subsequent anti-semitism they brought upon themselves by their actions. In the TORAH, Moses warned the Children of Israel that the above would happen.

As the author of this document, I have taken negative "pot-shots" at all 3 monotheistic religions. I am, therefore, proud to be an "equal opportunity offender."

Table of Contents



Neither Judaism, nor Christianity, nor any other religion based on monotheism is absolutely right. However, there is a growing group of Gentiles that ascribes to the principles of the Laws of Noah. They are referred to today as Noahides or Noachides (rabbis have referred to non-Jews as "Sons of Noah" for the past 2,000 years), and they follow the rabbinical "seven commandments of Noah" which are interpreted from the TORAH. Those seven commandments consist of six prohibitions and one positive authoritative order. The six prohibitions are:

1. Idolatry

2. Improper use of G-d's name

3. Murder

4. Sexual immorality

5. Theft

6. Inhumane conduct (including eating blood or eating from a live animal)

The only positive commandment is:

7. The requirement that courts of law and a system of justice is established.

The Sons of Noah exist, basically, because rabbis created a procedural step for the non-Jew to convert to Rabbinic Judaism. During the educational process of conversion to Judaism, the non-Jew is expected to follow the Laws of Noah. There has never been any explicit desire, intent, or promotion by Rabbinic Judaism to convert non-Jews into Sons of Noah only. It was just a belief for the non-Jew in "limbo," while conversion to Judaism was taking place. For two thousand years, rabbis have smugly stated that those who lived faithfully by the Laws of Noah were seen by G-d as if they had fulfilled all 613 commandments (Mosaic Laws) that Orthodox Jews are supposed to fulfill. In other words, it would be easier for a non-Jew to "share in the world to come," if he or she would observe the Laws of Noah. Did rabbis do anything concerning this divine reasoning and try to convert non-Jews to Sons of Noah only? The great majority of rabbis probably did not. If Christians, through the proselytizing efforts of rabbis, gave up their belief and worship of Jesus, they were presumably being converted over to Rabbinic Judaism, with just a "pit-stop" as being Sons of Noah along the way.

Please note that it is not the intention of the author to create a Noachide religion. Another religion is not necessary, nor appropriate. What is necessary is for most religious people (Christians, Moslems, and Jews) to understand their religious roots. The establishment of the Covenant of Noah by G-d (after the flood) is the basis for all monotheistic religions, and any new covenant derived from the Bible does not replace anything that preceded it. "Replacement Theology" is the unfortunate result of improper Christian and Islamic education. For Jews, the Law of Moses added to and did not replace the Covenant of Noah. Regrettably, most Jews have no idea about nor understand G-d's purpose with Noah and what it is supposed to mean to them. Most Jews believe a false premise that Abraham was the first Jew (see the first chapter "What is Judaism?") and that selfish identity concept deliberately tries to segregate Judaism away from the Christian and Islamic religions. This is just another example of Judaism's failure to be a "light unto the nations." This failure has contributed to a self-inflicted anti-semitic response from the Christian/Islamic world.

During the last fifteen years of the 20th century, the modern Noachide movement started. Since 1989, when a large percentage of a Tennessee Baptist congregation embraced the Noachide beliefs, there has been significant growth. Interestingly, many Noachides continue to study the New Testament from a new perspective by correcting false additions and interpretations from the Greek language made by monks from the time of the early church. They are also trying to uncover original New Testament texts which were written originally in Hebrew. As stated earlier, rabbis had never endorsed nor tried to help the non-Jews in developing such a movement. But now, some rabbis are. However, most of these rabbis are of the Orthodox Jewish persuasion, and they have been exerting a very strong Orthodox Jewish influence for present and prospective B'nai Noach members. In any case, maybe now the world is being prepared for the Messianic Age. Whether there is to be a first or a second coming of the Messiah is not important, nor relevant. What is important is for each G-d fearing person to be spiritually prepared for the beginning of the Messianic Age.

Table of Contents


It should now be obvious what, at least for non-Jews, is the most appropriate belief and what commandments of G-d should probably be observed. But what about the Jewish people? Are Jews or, for that matter, all descendants of Jacob supposed to observe as many of the 613 commandments given to Israel at Sinai, as Traditional Rabbinic Judaism claims?

This question could probably be solved in a logical manner. Those of the Jewish faith (descendants of ISRAEL) should be setting an example for the non-Jewish world as a "LIGHT UNTO THE NATIONS." The traditional Jewish attitude toward Gentiles has been "we'll leave you alone, if you'll leave us alone." Rabbi Akiba was somewhat responsible for this attitude, which was reinforced in an anti-Semitic way by Constantine, but it is no longer valid. Jews should not seclude themselves to practice what Gentiles perceive to be mysterious traditions, but should set the standard of humane living through adherence to and promotion of the Laws of Noah. If it's good enough for the Gentiles, then it should be good enough for the Jews. When an Orthodox Jew practices ultra-traditional Judaism, he or she removes him/herself too much from society because of the ultra-religious lifestyle that is imposed both physically and psychologically upon the observant Jew. Non-Jews throughout the world view this behavior as weird and out-of-touch with normal everyday life.

On the other hand, many Reform Jews, especially including practically all Humanist and all Reconstructionist Jews, have practically thrown out, not only most of rabbinic law, but belief in the divine inspiration of the Bible and in G-d as well. Much of Reform and even some Conservative Jewish Congregations are just secularists and, basically, do not adhere to biblical prophecy, let alone a G-d fearing belief. Is it any wonder that, only during the existence of Reform, Reconstructionist, and Humanistic Judaism, a larger percentage of non G-d fearing Jews in society are experiencing socioeconomic and psychological ills in coping with life today? However, please note that not all Reform and less observant-type Jews are not believers in G-d. Some of these Jews truly do believe in G-d, and although they would like to associate with other G-d fearing Jews, their only option would appear to be that of an Orthodox Jewish community. However, they abhor Orthodox Judaism because of the incredible amount of traditional observances expected of them. It is because of this, that Secular Judaism is so prevalent in non-Orthodox Jewish communities today. And as a result of that secularism, many Jews (75% plus) are extremely liberal in thought and practice and are predominantly members of the Democratic party. Outside of Orthodox Judaism, the real G-d of Israel has no place in their secularist Jewish home. Secular Jews have become well-schooled in their college educated man-made liberal faith and belief system. For many of them, their only contact with the G-d of Israel and his laws must be within their private thoughts only and not shared with other secularists (for fear of embarrassment and rejection within the liberally-educated Jewish community).

It appears that Conservative Judaism is probably the closest form of Judaism to what is the most appropriate belief for the descendants of Israel. Many aspects of traditional Rabbinic Judaism have been eliminated to allow the Conservative Jew to easily coexist with and thus be able to help the non-Jewish world, although this was probably not the intention of the movement's founder, Solomon Schechter. A new form of Conservative Judaism could have a great impact on bringing about Messianism peaceably. But first, Conservative rabbis must understand the move in this direction and lead their congregations accordingly. Rabbis should reinforce the belief in G-d (which is paramount) among their own congregations and then promote the Noachide concepts to the rest of the world. Also, in promoting the Noachide concepts, Jewish congregations should probably consider establishing a modern-day "Court of the Gentiles" within the synagogue's sanctuary. The ancient Temples in Jerusalem contained such holy areas. Such a spiritual education of those Gentiles who are eager to learn more about their "Jewish roots" would greatly help to bridge the gap between Christians and Jews. In addition, it would solidify the positive relationship that has developed between true (non-proselytizing) Christian Zionists and the Jewish people.

Please note that there are some professed Christian Zionists who proselytize Jews and have an ulterior motive for supporting the Jewish people and the State of Israel. They have veiled their support with the hope that the Jews will convert to Christianity in order to fulfill their idea of Messianism. They obviously do not believe in the Plural Covenant Concept that was explained earlier in this document, and they adhere to the traditional anti-semitic Christian beliefs that non-believers in Jesus (especially Jews) do not go to heaven.

Many non-Jews have developed an evil perception that Jews consider themselves the "chosen people" by being "holier than thou" in their religious observances (stemming from centuries of Orthodox Judaism). This just adds fuel to the fires of anti-Semitism. The Orthodox Jews today do nothing more than maintain a cultural barrier between themselves and Gentiles. Doesn't it appear that G-d would have intended that Jews in diaspora would help and educate the non-Jewish world? Orthodox Rabbi Irving Greenberg, in his recently published book "For the Sake of Heaven and Earth - The New Encounter between Judaism and Christianity," shows much promise for traditional Judaism and its relationship with Christianity. Unfortunately, he has become subject to attacks from within Orthodox Judaism, even though he is an acclaimed professor at Yeshiva University in New York.

Gentile Christians will never learn, understand, nor respect the Laws of Noah, because Rabbinic Judaism will always place the Jews and their many traditions above Noachide belief. The non-Jews will probably continue to hold on to their Gentile Christian Jesus and will refute even the most logical explanations of righteous thought, as long as they perceive that Jews consider themselves superior in any way.

What the world needs today is a compromise to achieve a meeting point for all religions and creeds. There is an original faith, and our focus should be upon the G-d of Noah. We are all descendants of Noah and we should believe and observe at least those seven commandments stated previously. For the descendants of ISRAEL, the Bible specifies only a handful of significant Mosaic Laws. These commandments are indicated in Biblical/Torah statements that say "it shall be a statute for ever" or "a perpetual statute," etc.

The observance of these commandments should not result in the segregation of those observing them because of the strangeness of the rituals implied. The entire 613 Mosaic Laws were for a people of a certain time in history and no longer apply the way they were stated centuries ago. In addition to the Ten Commandments, these Mosaic Laws consist of seven observances and two prohibitions. Also, all of the Holy Days listed (two through six of the seven observances) should be observed on the correct calendar day noted using the Torah Solar Calendar (from Moses), not the pagan Babylonian lunar calendar (put into law by a mistaken Hasmonean Sanhedrin). The seven observances are (in no particular order):

1. The Sabbath

2. A Memorial of the Blowing of Trumpets (on or about Sept. 21st Autumnal Equinox, annually)

3. The Day of Atonement (on or about September 30th, annually)

4. Sukkot (on or about October 5th through October 11th, annually)

5. Passover (on or about April 4th through April 10th, annually )

6. Shavuot (on or about May 25th, annually)

7. Abrahamic Law of Circumcision

All prohibitions in Mosaic Law should be heeded, but the only two prohibitions stated as permanent regulations are eating fat or blood and performing pagan sacrifices, which interestingly parallel two Noachide Laws. All the observances stated above should be practiced by those who know they are descendants of the House of ISRAEL. Interpretation of these observances should be simple and relatively easy to follow for those living in diaspora. If people become too "involved" in these traditions, they will segregate themselves from society and won't help to bring about a peaceful introduction to the Messianic Age. These observances have more importance and relevance in the State of Israel, because Israel's laws are already accustomed to them.

There are other commandments from the Bible that are destined to be observed, but they will only apply when G-d's "Special" House of Worship (the Tabernacle of Moses) is reestablished at Gilgal. Jews, Christians, and Moslems alike clamor for control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in order to build or deny the construction of a Third Temple. However, the most important place on earth is not even in Jerusalem, but a desolate, yet unique and unusual location just north/northwest of the Dead Sea. After Moses died, Joshua led the entire House of Israel to encamp there (at Gilgal) for 14 years immediately after miraculously crossing the Jordan River dryshod and entering the Promised Land (in a way somewhat similar to the miraculous crossing the Sea of Reeds when leaving Egypt). According to the Bible, the Covenants of G-d to ISRAEL were constantly renewed at Gilgal (even through the time of the Kings of ISRAEL). And with the establishment of the Third Commonwealth (the modern State of Israel), the same will be true. In order for the establishment of the Third Temple in Jerusalem, it will first be necessary to reestablish the ancient Tabernacle at Gilgal. The Tabernacle, along with many other First Temple treasures (such as the Ark of the Covenant), has been hidden underground for approximately 2,440 years at Qumran. They are soon to be uncovered by Vendyl Jones' successor's archaeological team (be sure to read the chapter in the Addendum for clarification: Identifying The Authentic Holy Jewish People). Please note that Vendyl Jones' archaeological team discovered the true location of Gilgal in 1994 with the help and cooperation of the IDF (Israel Defense Forces).

Once the Tabernacle of Moses is reestablished at Gilgal, there will be specific biblical commandments that will be observed. These observances will involve, for example, the physical structure of the Tabernacle including the Eternal Flame, the garments and the anointing of the priests, etc. Sacrifices of animals will probably not be practiced. However, the sacrifice of the red heifer for its ashes and its purification purposes might be necessary, and such a sacrifice is observed outside of the Tabernacle or Temple. In addition, there may be no need for any perfect red heifer or its sacrifice in the future, especially if the original Ashes of the Red Heifer (from Moses) are recovered along with all of the ancient First Temple Treasures by Vendyl Jones' successor. In any case, the laws of G-d's "Special" House of Worship (the Tabernacle) will only be important to us when it is uncovered, hopefully, in the very near future.

The concept of ISRAELISM is meant only as a suggestion or recommendation and is not "set in stone." Its purpose is to give the reader new insight to help explore a more correct belief system for the House of ISRAEL. We must hope that Jewish religious leaders will have the courage to observe scriptural truths and improve the faith for those of us it applies to. The same old tune of "come to our house of worship" and "observe our (mostly man-made) traditions" is failing and will not do anymore. Rabbis who have pleaded from the pulpit have accomplished little. They don't have the appropriate answers.

As we near the end of the present era, the House of ISRAEL has a final opportunity and biblical obligation to prepare Jews and Gentiles for the coming Messianic Age. The belief and spirit of Messianism should not be totally monopolized by Christianity. "Messianic Judaism," which is promoted by Jews for Jesus, is a misleading title for another form of Christianity with a Jewish coating. Jews should observe a more authentic biblical faith (ISRAELISM) that would include only those aspects of present Rabbinic Judaism that might apply. ISRAELISM should encourage openly-expressed ideas and prophetic interpretation about the coming Messianic Age as foretold by the prophets. ISRAELISM should not fall victim to lack of interest by its members, the messianic preaching of false doctrines, and the resulting conversion to pagan/idolatrous beliefs.

Table of Contents


In closing, the Dead Sea Scrolls that have been revealed to us prove the authenticity and accuracy of the Hebrew Bible (the Hebrew Scriptures only). Not a word of the Hebrew Bible in its written form has been changed. Recently, through computer study, we are learning that much of the Bible is cryptically encoded (in Hebrew only). Since the Hebrew Prophets did not have computers, only G-d could have composed the Hebrew Bible that way. These Torah/Bible Codes are absolute scientific proof of the existence of G-d! The Bible contains G-d's words, because the words spoken by men who prophesied unerringly came true. The words of these men were then considered holy. These men were proclaimed prophets of the word of G-d, even though all of their prophecies have not yet come to pass. The Hebrew Bible was preserved from generation to generation perfectly, as it was originally written by the great prophets and their scribes, so that we could have the opportunity to understand the coming days of fulfillment.

There is much to be learned from studying the writings, the artifacts, etc. discovered from archaeological digs. But some Dead Sea Scroll writings still haven't been revealed. Israeli officials have control of undisclosed scrolls and other archaeological findings, and won't divulge any damaging evidence against Judaism or Christianity that they may have discovered. Archaeological work goes on daily in Israel, and it wouldn't be surprising if newly-found truths about Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are constantly being suppressed to protect traditional Judaism and the "status quo" with Rome and the Moslem world. Israeli officials should not conceal findings that might expose errors, even in Judaism. They should not protect misdirected faith by perpetuating the centuries-old deceptive practices of the Roman Catholic Church. The deliberate concealment of religious truth is a terrible sin.

Table of Contents




According to traditional Rabbinic Jewish belief, the Lost Tribes of Israel remain lost because they don't practice Judaism and, therefore, aren't Jewish. This is faulty reasoning. The Jews (the southern kingdom of Judah) have assumed the birthright of the northern kingdom by imposing their Jewish religion for the entire "House of ISRAEL." Judaism has attached biblical prophecy concerning the lost tribes to itself without proof of ownership of the birthright. Jewish descendants today are referred to as either Kohanim (Aaron's descendants), other Levites, or Israelites. The Israelites are comprised primarily of Judahites. Only the Levites (including Kohanim) know their tribal identity. When the Messianic Era begins, Judaism errantly assumes that "their Israelites" (Jews) will be identified by G-d as the entire ten lost tribes.

This Jewish reasoning makes no logical sense. When the Assyrians captured and deported most of the northern kingdom tribes of Israel in approximately 555 B.C.E. (corrected from the mistaken 719 B.C.E.), only a relatively small fraction of the members of the northern kingdom avoided capture by escaping to the southern kingdom of Judah. Those that did became Jews and intermarried with other Jews since then. Identity as members of the northern kingdom was lost and assimilation with the Jews has followed ever since. So, how will we be able to identify all of the tribes of Israel at the beginning of the Messianic Era, according to the prophetic statements in Holy Scripture?

There is some speculation that science is developing a method to determine descendancy through the use of DNA. If the DNA of the bones of Jacob (Israel) and tribal (blood) descendants could be ascertained, it might be possible for all descendants of Israel to know their tribal identity. If determining descendancy (through DNA) can be accurate, then we will be amazed by the many Gentiles who will be identified as blood descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Several years ago, Sixty Minutes (CBS television) did a very interesting story about the Lemba tribe of Africa. The Lemba claimed to be descendants of the House of Israel. After scientific analysis (tissue samples), the Lemba actually contained specific genes from the Kohanim (Israelite priests).

The increase in the population of the Lost Tribes of Israel and Judah during the past 2500 years, after the northern kingdom of Israel was conquered and carried away by the Assyrians, is of great importance. Today, we know that there are approximately 13 million Jews. If the southern kingdom of Judah (Jews) had not suffered all of the deaths as the result of wars and national destructions, punishments, Crusades, Inquisitions, pogroms, anti-Semitism, the Holocaust, etc., would the Jews number in the hundreds of millions today? Some people might say that if the Jews had not suffered so many calamities, then Judaism would probably have disappeared long ago. That could be true, but it is not relevant to this discussion. Please consider these projections strictly in the hypothetical sense that the author intends.

Since most of the lost northern kingdom of Israel did not suffer as much as the southern kingdom, isn't it possible that they (unknowingly even unto themselves as descendants of Israel) were able to propagate much more extensively than the Jews? Also, the northern kingdom of Israel was composed of approximately three times the number of tribes as the southern Kingdom of Judah. It would not be surprising to learn that the northern kingdom of Israel's descendants (even through extensive intermarriage with other peoples) could number more than half a billion! Such a large number of people could only be identified as citizens of most of Europe, North America, and many other parts of the world. Although Herbert W. Armstrong's "World Wide Church of G-d" analysis of some of the northern kingdom's history has some validity, his combined Christian displacement-replacement-dispensational theology is anti-TORAH and anti-ISRAEL!

If the previous paragraph has some merit, then we might be able to envision a time in the future when anti-Semitism can be significantly eliminated and the Messianic Era can begin. As long as Gentiles feel jealousy toward those whom they perceive as a "chosen people" and whom they don't understand religiously, anti-Semitism will continue to exist. In fact, today's anti-Semitism (which is really anti-ISRAEL), is the result of a worldwide jealousy and hatred toward the State of Israel. Is it any wonder that with the creation of Israel in 1948, most churches were embarrassed and their man-made theologies had to be re-configured? And although many modern-day denominations of Christianity now proclaim a "love of the land and the people of Israel," are they really just assuming that all of the Jews will convert to Christianity when the Messianic Era begins? It has been said by many so-called Christians that when all the Jews are back in the holy land of Israel, G-d is going to "sock it to them again." Traditional Christianity condemns the Jew as not being saved and the Jew is going to hell. Only those Christians who respect the covenants of G-d to Israel, and the fact that those covenants are still in force today, can be considered not to be anti-Semitic. The majority of these Christians today are referred to as Christian Zionists, and it is obvious to the author that these Christians comprehend the "Plural Covenant Concept" that was explained previously in this document whether they are or were aware of the "Pural Covenant Concept" or not. Although these Christians fully believe in the Christian doctrine of salvation, they also believe that proselytizing Jews is wrong, since the Jews come under a "different economy" of religious faith and beliefs. Of special note, many Christian Zionists today are studying Judaic concepts in their desire to better understand their "Jewish Roots." Concerning Islam, even the Moslem world feels unjustifiably threatened by its religious predecessor (Judaism), which it had dominated by sheer numbers for centuries. Since the reestablishment of the State of Israel, many factions of Islam have actually denounced the Bible and its true "chosen people."

{From Arutz 7 in Israel -} Following are excerpts from a religious program broadcast on official Palestinian Authority television on November 3, 1998 (only 11 days after the signing of the Wye River Memorandum, in which the Palestinian Authority committed itself to halt incitement and hostile propaganda): "The Jews Torah is just a collection of contrived booklets, designed to prove that Palestine belongs to the Jews, and in which they wrote lies about G-d, His prophets, and His teachings… There is no light nor teaching in their Torah today. The Jews are the seed of Satan and the devils.... The Jews believe only in the first five books, which includes the Book of Genesis, all of which is lies about G-d and about the day of Creation... To their Prophets they attribute the greatest of crimes: murder, ************ and drunkenness. The Jews do not believe in G-d nor in the End of Days. They have distorted it [the Torah], lied about it and forged it... They invented it as a history book for the Jews, full of promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob that they would be given the land of Palestine... the entire Torah comes to demand ownership of the land for the Jews... They have distorted the faith and exchanged the gift of G-d for heresy, rebellion ************* and distorted the Torah...."

Although the above statements are from the Palestinian Authority, most Arabs/Moslems would agree with them and cannot accept the reestablishment of the "Land of ISRAEL" to its rightful owners. However, the holy Islamic book, the Qur'an, has been interpreted by those who possess older versions which imply that whoever possesses the Ashes of the Red Heifer, rules the world. When ISRAEL comes into the possession of the "Ashes of the Red Heifer" (also to be uncovered by the successors of Vendyl Jones' archaeological teams), Moslems must pay homage to ISRAEL according to some interpretations of their own traditions. Will we then see a true peace, or just another phony Jihad (Islamic holy war), or possibly the start of the biblical War of Gog and Magog and/or Armageddon?

Although the vast and overwhelming majority of Islamic believers are anti-Israel, there are some (even in the position of authority and leadership) who have quite a different position. Dr. Abdul Hadi Palazzi (an Imam) is a perfect example. Shaykh Prof. Palazzi is Secretary General of the Italian Muslim Association (AMI), an Imam of the Italian Islamic Community (ICCII) in Rome and Director of the Community's Cultural Institute. Prof. Palazzi holds a Ph.D in Islamic Sciences by decree of the Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The following e-mail discussion and responses (from 1999) are very enlightening.


Dear Dr. Palazzi,

My name is Howard Rollin and I'm a supporter of the B'nai Noach movement. Your name was brought to my attention as a result of a discussion about who has authority over B'nai Noach. Although almost all traditional B'nai Noach groups are controlled by Orthodox Rabbinic Judaic sources, I contend that Christian and Islamic B'nai Noach have an appropriate place as well. I have even established a Christian Noachide discussion group from within my own web site. But I never suspected that there would be Islamic believers who would recognize the importance of B'nai Noach. However, if I'm mistaken, please accept my apology.

(Dr. Palazzi responds) No, you are not mistaken. Our Institute is working to refute the so-called Islamic anti-Zionism and to help Muslims to develop a positive attitude toward our Jewish brothers. We are also cooperating with the Jerusalem-based Root & Branch Association.

(Howard Rollin continues) If you are a B'nai Noach supporter from the Islamic point of view, I would be interested in your opinions. In the United States, many people (including myself) only address the Judeo-Christian ideology and leave out Islam. I hope you can be of some help to me.

Thank you, Howard Rollin

(Palazzi) For what I know, there are no organizations of Muslim B'nai Noach or place where they meet. From a religious point of view, accepting to be involved in B'nai Noach projects is easier for a Muslim than for a Christian. A Muslim believes that Torah was revealed from G-d, and that Jews must abide by it. Moreover, the concept of G-d is the same in both religions. The real problem is that kind of political propaganda that tries to convince Muslims that enmity toward the Jews is a part of Islam.

We think this is the first obstacle on our road, and for this reason we are striving our best to remove it. On the contrary, from a theological point of view, becoming a B'nai Noach is more difficult for a Christian. He would have to change traditional Christian belief about Jesus, and admit that he was a human being, and not an incarnated G-d.

If you have further questions, please, do not hesitate to ask.

With best greetings and regards,

Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi

Director, Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community

Co-founder and Co-chairman of the Islam-Israel Fellowship (Root & Branch Association)

For more information about Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, click on: 


Gentiles dislike the concept that they were somehow left out of G-d's divine plan, even though they may actually be blood descendants of the "chosen people" themselves. Therefore, traditional Christianity has allowed its Gentiles to displace G-D, TORAH, and ISRAEL with their early Holy Roman Empire form of paganism and anti-Semitism. The previous sentence, as well as most of the Greek Scriptures, were never intended by their true authors (who probably wrote much of it originally in Hebrew) to become a replacement for the Hebrew Bible. It was the monks of the Holy Roman Empire who "monkeyed with the text," thus twisting and perverting the truth out of what is now called the New Testament. Every Protestant denomination of Christianity accepts the New Testament (as it is known today), even though it was controlled, edited, and handed down to them by the theology that most of them despise, the Roman Catholic Church. And although there are numerous retranslations and editions of the New Testament, including a Hebrew Christian "Jewish New Testament," the misleading content remains the same.

Jews are supposed to be a "LIGHT UNTO THE GENTILES" and teach righteousness to non-Jews. In order to teach Gentiles, Jews tried to reestablish the concept of B'nai Noach (sons of Noah) during the first few centuries of the Common Era, but the Jews were stopped by the edicts of Constantine and the Roman empire. According to the prophet Zechariah in chapter 8:23, when the Messianic Era occurs..."ten men, out of all the languages of the nations, shall take hold, yea they shall take hold of the skirt (tallit) of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that G-d is with you." This statement implies that Gentiles will be led to worship when "those days" come through the reestablishment of B'nai Noach. If, however, the Jews fail to be a "light unto the nations," the Messianic Era will be preceded by the profanation of G-d's name (Chillul HaShem). Tribulation in the world will occur. On the other hand, if Jew and Gentile can learn to establish peace and prosperity on earth by eliminating hatred, then we will accomplish the sanctification of G-d's name (Kiddush HaShem). As in the days of Daniel the Prophet, the L-rd found the kingdom of Babylon to be ..."weighed in the balances and art found wanting." Babylon was then conquered by the Persians. It seems that G-d judges us from the choices we make, and our future is constantly being "weighed in the balance!"

Table of Contents


It is assumed by most people who know the story of Moses and Israel at Mt. Sinai that what Moses came down with from the top of the mountain were the stone tablets of the Ten Commandments. The entire House of Israel was witness to this revelation, but of the more than a million Israelites (men and women combined), only those close enough to Moses could see what he actually brought down from the mountain.

Up until that moment of Israelite history, all major miracles of the Bible were performed by G-d directly. There were token instances where Moses, for example, would hold up his staff or his hands as a sign of leadership to his people. Otherwise, the Alm-ghty was in complete control of all miracles. After the Israelites left Mt. Sinai, miracles were performed through the powers of the Ark of the Covenant.  Placed inside the Ark were the stone-like objects (made of solid sapphire) which Moses received from G-d at Sinai (Although this link deals with the completion of the subject of Torah Codes, it also includes a very mystical but exciting explanation of the true nature of the TORAH, and it will be found in the lower half of the link's paragraphs entitled "What Was the Torah Written On?").

Approximately 2500 years ago, after conquering Judah and surrounding Jerusalem, Sennacherib's Assyrian army was mysteriously destroyed during their sleep (185,000 killed). This event was the last of many events, occurring over a period of centuries, which protected the children of Israel from their enemies. Ever since, there have been no miracles of such magnitude of G-d's powers. In my opinion, what destroyed the Assyrians while they slept were angels utilizing G-d's power from the Ark of the Covenant. The objects in the Ark gave the power of G-d to the Ark. King Hezekiah was the last king to witness G-d's saving power from the Ark of the Covenant. King Manasseh, who succeeded Hezekiah, was the most evil and pagan king in Israelite history. Some contents of the Ark of the Covenant may have been taken out by the priests of the First Temple and placed into a replica Ark to keep King Manasseh from possibly misusing the powers of G-d. The replica Ark of the Covenant was secretly carried away by priests to Elephantine on an island within the Nile River in Egypt and placed in a temple there for many years, even during the time of the Babylonian captivity. Before the jealous Egyptians destroyed the temple at Elephantine, priests removed the replica Ark of the Covenant. They moved it much further south along the Nile to Ethiopia, and it eventually may have wound up in the town of Axum in a chapel of the Church of Saint Mary, where it might still be today. Although Ethiopia was converted to the ancient First Temple Hebraic faith by the Queen of Sheba, monks from the early church (during the fourth century C.E.) started a major forced conversion of the Hebraic Ethiopians to Christianity. One of the traditions that modern Christian Ethiopians still observe is the placing of Tabot (facsimile pieces of broken Torah stone that are wrapped in cloth) upon the head of their Christian leaders during religious festivals and processions such as Timkat.

The original Ark of the Covenant remained in the Temple in Jerusalem, however, without the complete contents placed in it by Moses. Without its total powers, the Ark could not be misused by King Manasseh for pagan/unholy purposes. But it also could not protect the southern kingdom of Judah. Before the destruction of the Temple by the Babylonians, the prophet Jeremiah, along with many supporters, removed the original Ark of the Covenant from the Temple through a secret underground passageway beneath the Temple Mount (Zedekiah's Tunnel) that led east/southeast from Jerusalem under the valley of Achor. The exact location of this Ark of the Covenant is on the verge of being revealed. Archaeologist Vendyl Jones' successor and his group of excavators will uncover the location of, not only the Ark of the Covenant, but all of the holy items related to the First Temple and especially the Tabernacle of Moses (Mishkan) as well. The secrets will be revealed in the seventh chamber of the Cave of the Column in Qumran. There, along with the Ashes of the Red Heifer contained in a clay vessel inside a copper pot (Kalal) will be a very special silver scroll, which will unlock many holy secrets.

According to the Talmud, Jews have learned that Torah is G-d, and G-d is Torah. Redemption for the world is based upon G-D, TORAH, and ISRAEL. (The above G-D, TORAH, and ISRAEL has been capitalized throughout this document because it emphasizes and represents what should be the pillars of all faiths.) Jews have also learned that the Torah preceded creation. G-d looked into the Torah and then created the world. This incomprehensible belief becomes more confusing when we understand that at Mt. Sinai, G-d gave Torah to Israel as a permanent covenant to remain on earth forever. Then, how should we understand what Torah is?

Torah is the first five books of the Bible, or the five books of Moses. That is all that Judaism, as most Jews know it, basically teaches. The entire focus of Judaism places the observance of Mosaic Law above everything else. There is, however, more to the Torah than just its written words. We have lost sight of the bigger picture of Torah understanding and revelation.

According to Jewish tradition, G-d offered Torah to all the nations of the world, but only Israel accepted it. It is my contention that at least one other nation accepted a prior form of Torah before Israel. That nation accepted the powers of G-d but not the laws of G-d. That nation became a great and powerful nation as long as they believed in one G-d, even without many additional laws. Unfortunately, that nation fell into idolatry by creating many false deities because they never became a holy nation. G-d took away the special gift from that nation, punished them, and gave it to Israel who accepted it in a monotheistic holy way. Israel would become G-d's holy nation as "A LIGHT UNTO THE WORLD" through the permanent establishment of "TO"-"RAH" on earth. "TO" stood for the laws of G-D, and "RAH" (light) stood for G-D's power.

Egypt received "RAH" from at least the third dynasty, if not earlier. But "RAH" alone would not work. The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture, although a true religion (a unified theological system) never existed among them. The Egyptian faith evolved into an unorganized collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and numerous deities. "RAH" was the foundation of what should have been a simple complete belief. But idolatry flourished instead, and "RAH" was fused with the pagan deity Amon and was expanded to encompass other deities which were born out of "RAH." These new deities had children of their own until we come to the descendants Osiris and his daughter Isis. Mithraism, a major pagan religion during the Roman Era (discussed earlier), proclaimed Isis as the virgin mother of Mithra. Roman Catholicism and most of its Christian offshoots, as we know them today, are nothing more than a twist on the same pagan, idolatrous tradition that has evolved from ancient Egypt, to Babylon, and then to Rome.

If we examine the ancient artifacts of Egypt, we will notice some very interesting similarities with those of the Israelites. The Ark of the Covenant matches almost exactly the Arks of the ancient Pharaohs. A comparison can be easily made with the relics of Tutankhamen who lived about a century before Moses.

We can now begin to realize G-D's divine plan for his holy nation of ISRAEL. We can now understand that the leader of the CHILDREN OF ISRAEL had to be miraculously brought up and educated in the knowledge and customs of the Egyptians. Without a leader with the upbringing of Moses, ISRAEL would never have been able to free itself from slavery in Egypt. Moses also learned from his teachers in Egypt about Alchemy and the powers of "RAH" (the light of G-D) from dynasties gone by. Although Egypt still possessed some of the powers of "RAH," G-D removed the great divine powers from their Arks because of Egypt's idolatry. The Egyptian "magicians" were no match against Moses, speaking on behalf of the Alm-ghty, when he said "let my people go." Unfortunately, much of pagan Egypt had "rubbed off" on G-D's new holy nation, and ISRAEL would have to be cleansed of idolatry by wandering for 40 years in the wilderness. ISRAEL was not to use G-D's powers from the Ark of the Covenant to build a great physical empire like the one that resulted in pagan Egypt. Instead, the Ark became a defensive mechanism which protected ISRAEL through the righteous thoughts of its people and the holy practices of G-D's law in Biblical times.

In the study of Alchemy, there are secrets that we can neither determine nor comprehend. These secrets make up part of the incomprehensible concept of G-D. The fourth Dynasty of Egypt began with King Snefru, who built the first true pyramid. His son, Cheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza. In order to build such incredible monuments, it appears that some special science or power was implemented. It should be pointed out that King Snefru promoted much commerce and mining. He brought prosperity to his kingdom and was very active in the Sinai. Could there be any connection between what Snefru and Moses did in the Sinai?

When Moses came down from Mt. Sinai, he carried TO-RAH. When he found the ISRAELITES practicing idolatry (having built the golden calf), he smashed the TO-RAH. When Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with the second TO-RAH, the ISRAELITES witnessed a spectacular radiance emanating out of the TO-RAH. This spectacular display shot upwards toward the heavens, projecting the image in the dark clouds (hovering at the top of the mountain) of what we refer to as the Ten Commandments. The letters of TO-RAH, which were made up of carved-out holes in the long somewhat rectangular box-shaped object (made of solid sapphire), allowed the radiant light from within to act like a projector. When Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with the intact TO-RAH, he eventually placed it into the newly made Ark of the Covenant. Since the first TO-RAH was in pieces, those holy pieces were also placed inside the Ark. The broken TO-RAH represented Israel breaking the commandments of the law, while the intact TO-RAH represented adherence to the law. Both TO-RAHs gave G-D's divine power to the Ark of the Covenant. If either TO-RAH would be taken out of the Ark, the Ark would lose much, if not all, of its power. This was explained previously in the discussion of a possible replica Ark of the Covenant, which might still be in Ethiopia.

Table of Contents



We assume that during the Roman/Jewish War (66-70 C.E.), the righteous Jews were defending themselves against the Roman legions from within the walls of Jerusalem. Many Jews have heard the remarkable story of Rabbi Yohanan Ben Zacchai and how he and his students escaped the destruction of Jerusalem by feigning the rabbi's death. His students carried the rabbi out of Jerusalem and to the Roman General Vespasian in a casket. The rabbi then came out of the casket to stand before the Roman general and prophesy that Vespasian would become the Caesar of Rome and the emperor of the world. So, instead of killing the rabbi and his students, Vespasian allowed Rabbi Zacchai (the bearer of good news to the Roman general) to not only live but develop a Yeshiva at Yavneh. This Yeshiva enabled Judaism to survive in the diaspora after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple. Soon, from this Yeshiva, the eventual codification of the Oral Law (the "fence of protection" around Judaism) and the final determination of Holy Scriptures (what would be included in the Bible) would occur. It becomes obvious that G-d intended the above miracle to happen, in order for Jews to maintain their identity while in diaspora for almost two thousand years. But were Rabbi Zacchai and his students the real Authentic Holy Jewish People of their time?

In 1988 in a cave at Qumran, a member of Vendyl Jones' archaeological team found a juglet of Holy Anointing Oil that was originally prepared for Temple use. In 1992, Vendyl Jones (the real "Indiana Jones") made an amazing 600 pound initial discovery of a reddish-brown organic material and eventually removed over 1200 pounds of what was determined as Temple Incense (Qetoret) prepared for worship use sometime in the future. Both of the above discoveries have been confirmed by thorough scientific testing in the State of Israel. Why were such holy objects hidden in Qumran thousands of years ago? We would normally assume that such objects would only be found in Jerusalem around the Temple Mount. For an important and thorough understanding of "The Spiritual Significance of the Qetoret" by Kabbalist Rabbi Avraham Sutton, please click on this sentence.

The answers to these strange but true facts lie in the identification of the people who lived in Qumran and knew about the secrets of the Cave of the Column and what was hidden there. The people who lived in Qumran two thousand years ago (and even earlier) were labeled as the Essenes from a variety of historical studies. The Essenes have been referred to as a strange sect of Jews who observed unique laws and customs. It is now becoming evident that some of these so-called Essenes might have been the guardians of the holy items from the First Temple. But should we have labeled all of them as Essenes or maybe something else?

When we refer to Jews who handled the holy Temple items, we normally identify them as priests (Kohanim and other Levites). But the real priesthood was replaced by some of the last Kings of Judea (both Hasmonean and Herodian) with their own false appointments. When the Jewish Zealots, including their "daggermen hit-squad" Sicaari, took control of Jerusalem and parts of Judea from the Romans just a few years before the destruction of the Second Temple, the Sicaari killed the false priests. The real priests then returned to Jerusalem and may have removed important holy items that were used only during the period of the Second Temple and were created specifically for that Temple. When Titus destroyed the Second Temple in 70 C.E., the Roman Legions probably carried back to Rome replacement artifacts from the Temple placed there by the real priests to deceive the newly crowned Caesar Vespasian. What has been inscribed upon the Arch of Titus in Rome depicts what the Romans thought were the real "spoils of war." However, the Roman soldiers didn't know the difference between the real holy items (already hidden by the real priests, along with the original holy items from Solomon's Temple...see next paragraph) and the phony ones the Romans now possessed.

The original Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle of Moses (along with many other important First Temple items) were moved by Jeremiah the prophet and scores of priests (under the approval of King Josiah) 7 years before the destruction of the First Temple and almost 5 centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple. Many secrets of the priesthood would have died with Jeremiah, his fellow prophets of Israel, and the last priests of Solomon's Temple, if not for the Copper Scroll. The Copper Scroll which was found in Qumran in 1952, but was not properly deciphered until much later (thanks in part to Vendyl and Zahava (Cohen) Jones), appears to have been designed as a legacy by the priesthood and prophets from the time just before the destruction of Solomon's Temple (the First Temple).

The Copper Scroll remained an enigma for many years after its discovery. However, intensive research over the past thirty years has begun to unlock many of its secrets. To understand the scroll, one must first understand the geology and geography described within its unusual text. Vendyl Jones was able to discern that, which made it possible for him to locate the Cave of the Column (the cave with 2 openings), where he has uncovered six of seven chambers. The seventh chamber, in all probability will be quite huge (from results of ground penetrating radar tests at the cave), and it will contain the righteous treasures of Solomon's Temple.

Subsequent validation for the significance of the Copper Scroll was forthcoming (but not until the 1990's). Rabbi Mendel Tropper and Rabbi Rachmael Steinburg came across a long forgotten text called the Emeq HaMelech, which had been written by Rabbi Naftali Hertz Ben Ya'acov Elchanon in the year 1648 in Amsterdam, Holland. Rabbi Steinburg states that "Rav Hertz was known as a very holy and very prominent rabbi, whose knowledge of both the written and oral Torah was superb. He was in the line of transmission from Rabbi Ari Ben Luria who was the leader of the most illustrious group of Rabbis in the world, including the great Torah giant Rabbi Yosef Cairo, author of the Shulchan Aruch.

"Inside the text of the Emeq HaMelech (Valley of the King) is the complete text of a missing Mishnaic text called 'Massachet Keilim' consisting of twelve chapters. Each chapter describes various vessels which were hidden away by Jeremiah the Prophet in the year 3331 from Adam (429 B.C.E.), seven years before the destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem in 3338 (422 B.C.E.). The text mentions that five holy men were put in charge of this awesome task and it names them. They were Shimur HaLevi, Chizkiah, Tzidkiyahu, Haggai the Prophet and Zechariah the Prophet. In Chapter Three, it also mentions that other prophets were with them along with Ezra the Scribe when the twelve chapters were written in Babylon."

"The most significant of these twelve chapters are the first and second chapters. The first chapter clearly lists the vessels that were hidden and the second chapter states the following: 'These are the Holy Vessels and the vessels of the Temple that was in Jerusalem; . . . Shimur the Levite and his friends, wrote (the treasure lists) on a copper tablet.'"

"Rabbi Steinburg further states that the Talmud, in Huriot 12A, also describes that the Prophet Jeremiah foresaw that the Exile was imminent and that certain vessels had to be protected and hidden away for future generations. Jeremiah ordered King Josiah to hide the Ark of the Covenant, along with other items including the bottle of Anointing Oil, Aaron's Staff and the Chest sent by the Felishtim (Philistines) as "a gift to the G-d of Israel." And indeed, as Jeremiah foresaw, Nebuchadnezzar sent an army into Jerusalem afterwards and destroyed the Temple, sacked the city, destroyed the city walls and carried the population to exile in Babylonia. Rabbi Tropper cites a passage in the Babylonian Talmud, (Tractate Yoma 72a) which states that although the Mishkan and its contents were hidden away, they will one day be found again." (Note: The Mishkan was the portable Temple in which the Ark of the Covenant was carried and housed during Moses' forty years in the desert and up until King Solomon built the First Temple in Jerusalem almost five centuries later.)

An article by Rabbi Tropper states the following: "This house of worship ("Mishkan") contained the altar for the daily and seasonal sacrifices, the elaborate Menorah (candelabra) of solid gold, the Kalal (copper urn) containing the Ashes of the Red Heifer, and the numerous other vessels utilized for the detailed services of the Kohanim (priests).

The Ashes of the Red Heifer are the ashes from a completely red cow which was sacrificed under the jurisdiction of Moses, and which are necessary for the ritual purification of the priesthood as well as all Jews who are spiritually unclean. This mysterious process mentioned in the Torah (Numbers 19) is a prerequisite for the re-establishment of the Holy Temple Service.

Within the Mishkan's inner chamber, the Holy of Holies, could be found the magnificent Ark of the Covenant containing among other sacred items, the Tablets of the Ten Commandments (the sapphire stones) brought down from Mount Sinai by Moses. Because of these sacred contents and the level of holiness attained by the Prophet Moses, only the Mishkan reached a pure enough state to warrant that the Shechina (Divine Presence of G-d) would come to rest within it for all eternity. When the First Temple was built in Jerusalem, the Ark of the Covenant was placed inside the Temple while the rest of the Mishkan was buried beneath the Temple in a secret vault."

It is important to emphasize here that the chapters of Massachet Keilim (an addition or Tosefta to the Talmud cited by Rabbi Hertz as the source for his information about the Copper Scroll) cannot be found in modern copies of the Talmud. How strange!

Subsequent research (again in the 1990's) uncovered the work done by Solomon Schechter (the founder of Conservative Judaism) at Cambridge in 1896. It turned out that Schechter had acquired 100,000 pages in that year from the Genizah of the very old Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt. (A "Genizah" is a repository for damaged or aged sacred Jewish texts). A copy of the missing Tosefta, under the section of Keilim ("Vessels") was found among those scrolls and is the same text cited by Rabbi Hertz as his source. However, the ancient copy from the Cairo Genizah was believed to be 800 years old, much older than the publication by Rabbi Hertz in 1648.

And as if this were not sufficient, it turned out (although again correlated much later) that in 1952, the same year that the Copper Scroll was found at Qumran, two immense Marble Tablets were found in the basement of a museum in Beirut, Lebanon with ancient Hebrew writing inscribed on them. The Tablets begin by saying, "These are the words of Shimur HaLevi, the servant of HaShem, in the year 3331 of Adam." Remarkably, the rest of the writing proved to be the entire missing text of Massachet Keilim with its reference to the Copper Scroll. G-d does work in very spectacular and mysterious ways!!!

Although the Copper Scroll has been denigrated as a hoax by some "so-called" scholars, it was a "Key to the Kingdom" for future righteous people, like Vendyl Jones, just before the Messianic Age. Isn't it odd that a righteous Gentile and/or his Noachide followers (not Jews) will probably uncover the treasures of the Holy Temple? In the early 1990's, Vendyl Jones was given a plaque about the Red Heifer and its ashes that dates from the 15th century. The text on the plaque is attributed to Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, the 2nd century rabbi who wrote the "Zohar" (great mystical writings - part of Kabbalah). On the plaque it is written: "One gentile will purify himself, and they will sanctify the Name of mine. They will stand together side by side, hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder, heart in heart under much duress and opposition and will not stop until they have swept every corner and found her."

According to Dr. Robert Eisenman (co-author of The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered), the real holy people were those who lived in the caves by the Dead Sea, not necessarily the Jews in Jerusalem or elsewhere. He calls the leaders (priests) of these people "Zadokites" (descendants of Zadok, the High Priest of Kings David and Solomon) as a better reference than "Sadducees," which probably represented some of the phony priesthood in Jerusalem during the last two hundred plus years of the Second Temple.

During the years immediately following Jesus' death but before the Roman/Jewish War of 66 C.E., James, the brother of Jesus, was the leader of the Ebionites who were discussed earlier. James was in direct opposition to the positions of Paul, who led the Nazarene or Gentile movement. According to Dr. Eisenman, from Dead Sea Scroll study, the Ebionites made up the "rank and file" Jews of the Qumran community. Also, according to Dr. James Tabor (professor at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte), the name Ebionite meant much more than the translation of "poor ones," which has been a traditional historical belief. Ebionite probably comes from the Hebrew "Anavim" or "Avionim" which has a better reference to those who were purified by water (mikveh or baptism). If that was so, then the Ebionites, and not the Nazarenes, were the true followers of John (who eventually became known as the Baptizer). He was probably not only an Ebionite from Qumran, but he was a high priest (Kohanim and/or Zadokite) and leader. The garments that John wore (from Elisha) identified him as a holy priest.

The Ebionites adhered to Mosaic Law while the Nazarenes were trying to abolish it. It was the Gentile Nazarenes who eventually were called Christians. The Ebionites could have been Messianic Jewish Zealots, many of whom might have died at Masada (which is located directly south of Qumran along the Dead Sea). Possibly, the mass suicide at Masada was an attempt to prevent the Romans from torturing any knowledgeable survivors and obtaining the secrets of the Qumran community (what they had hidden there). Therefore, it appears that the Zadokites were the leaders of this Ebionite Qumran community who were the Authentic Holy Jewish People.

Table of Contents


Although the Arab-Israeli/Muslim-Judaic Gap is not the actual subject of this document, I would be remiss if I didn't provide some insight, as well as my personal views about this very critical problem.  From my perspective, I have witnessed incredible illogic, stupidity, and downright lies coming from not only the Arab/Palestinian/Islamic point-of-view (mainly), but also from the Israeli/Jewish-American "western religious ideology."  What you're about to read may sound familiar and somewhat repetitious to many of you.  However, there are some views expressed that are somewhat unique and have been kept hidden. Usually, you only read or hear about just one side of the story. The press and the media tend to "take sides," whether proof exists or not.  Being politically correct and earning "brownie points" are often more important than the truth.  Prejudices and biases within the press and other media reflect financial interests that have nothing to do with the truth, as well.  In order to fairly evaluate the problem, we must look at the situation from a more central point of view.  Although the Jews present a much better defense with logical reasoning concerning the Arab-Israeli problem, the Jews are not without some guilt concerning the establishment of the State of Israel.  If it is necessary to "air out old and hidden dirty laundry," then so be it.

In order to properly examine the problem, I will have to explain whether Israel has a right to exist.  According to the great majority of Arabs, modern-day Israel should be dismantled.  Within this great majority of Arabs are included different sects of Islamic believers.  There are, however, some Muslims (e.g., Professor, Imam, and Shayk Abdul Hadi Palazzi), who have a more correct reading and  interpretation of the Koran and support a religious Jewish State of Israel.  I have referred to him in other parts of this document, and I am impressed by and somewhat supportive of his incredible (and I believe dangerous) educational and spiritual work within the Islamic world community.  However, Shayk Palazzi's influence represents only a tiny fractional percentage of the Islamic world.  I am convinced that his work will probably never gain much recognition or acceptance within the mainframe of distorted Islamic thinking.  Arabs have been programmed to hate Jews and Israel by the political controlling forces within their totalitarian regimes.  This 20th century programming (brainwashing) of hatred against the Jews and Israel has been established by almost all Arab governments as a means of deflecting the real hatred against their own corrupt governments, and they are now being exposed and dealt with by the so-called "Arab Spring."  Worst of all, this brainwashing of hatred has been established within all Arab schools and has been falsely labeled as a true teaching of Islam. The Jews and Israel are being used as scapegoats (nothing new here!) in order to protect the cruel leaders and governments of most Arab countries.  This extreme hatred, however, has been going on for only a relatively short period of time and is mainly confined to the 20th and now the 21st century.

Some might say that the establishment of Zionism by Theodore Herzl, which occurred near the beginning of the 20th century, was the "flash point" for the initiation of this modern extreme hatred.  Actually, the hatred of Zionism by the Arabs did not come to fruition until after the Balfour Declaration (1917) and the League of Nations' Mandate (1922), which would set the stage for the eventual establishment of a Jewish state.  The first major incident and what was the earliest and most major massacre by the Arabs against Jews occurred at Hebron in 1929.  Although there were minor skirmishes prior to that massacre, 1929 is basically the beginning of what would eventually become the full-blown Arab-Jewish problem.  During the Ottoman Empire's rule of the Holy Land, which lasted until the end of World War I, Jews and Arabs lived relatively peacefully side by side for centuries.  In fact, the Jews were actually referred to as Palestinians before the establishment of the State of Israel, whereas many of the Arabs were referred to as southern Syrians.  The current usage of the name "Israel," which comes from Jacob, the son of Isaac, is a modern-day phenomenon.

The great majority of modern-day Arabs/Islamists believe that the Jews have no right to the Holy Land.  In order to support such a belief, the Arabs have conjured up incredible, illogical, and unfounded historical reasons why the Jews never lived in the Holy Land, and that they never possessed (or prayed in) a Temple in Jerusalem thousands of years ago, which is now the area of the Al Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.  The Arabs are now forced to deny the historical existence of Israel as the eternal home of the Jews.  All of the lying and deception by the Arabs is an attempt to hide away the true reasons for their hatred of Israel and the "west." 

In 1974, I befriended an Arab representative from Damascus, Syria.  Although it was a short friendship, we played tennis at his home, and afterwards, we discussed the Arab-Israeli problem over Syrian tea.  In his opinion, the problem stems from the fact that the Jews immigrating to the Holy Land during the first half of the 20th century were (in essence) modernizing and making improvements too quickly, and they "stood out like a sore thumb."  Arabs, who had lived in the same living conditions for centuries, were not ready for such modern "western" changes and influences.  My Arab friend said to me that "I should put myself in their shoes."  How would I react if I was an Arab and a bunch of outsiders tried to take over my country?  As long as the Ottoman Empire ruled the Holy Land, the Arab population never felt too threatened by modernization.  However, the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the mandates that followed put the Arabs in a position of losing governmental control over the Holy Land.  That was unacceptable to them, and "the west" had no right to change their lifestyle, no matter how backward that lifestyle might appear.  Even when a Transjordanian Arab leader of the early 20th century professed that the Jews had a right to reestablish a homeland in Palestine according to the Koran, he was murdered in order to shut up and stop any such ideas or concepts.  Anwar Sadat's murder is a more recent example of that same thing. 

A different aspect of Arab/Muslim deception that needs to be exposed is the deletion (and thus the falsification) of a specific Muslim obscure religious belief originally conceived in the Qur'an by Mohammed. In fact, it is so obscure that the great majority of Muslims (including present-day Imams) have never heard of it before. Today, no present-day copies of the Qur'an contain the unique information about the importance of the "Yellow Cow." The first surah (chapter) of the Qur'an is called the "Yellow Cow," but the content of that surah was changed probably during the early part of the 20th century or possibly even earlier. I deduced that this deceitful change was made in the Qur'an after reading Vendyl Jones' book "A Door of Hope." The book tells about an unusual meeting in Jerusalem during 1974, when Vendyl made the acquaintance of a very elderly Muslim man named Fareed Imam and was specifically shown by Fareed an unusual passage in an old tattered copy of the Qur'an. It said "...the nation who possesses the ashes - all nations will submit to that nation." Within previous chapters of Bridging the Judeo-Christian Gap, I have provided information about the "Ashes of the Red Heifer." According to the ancient Israelite faith and traditions, the Ashes of the Red Heifer purify the entire nation of the Children of Israel. Otherwise, important ancient traditions (especially including the use of the Ark of the Covenant) cannot be observed. Whoever finds the Ashes of the Red Heifer (Yellow Cow) will have also discovered the Mishkan (Tabernacle of Moses), the Ark of the Covenant, and all of the other ancient holy items from Solomon's Temple. In other words, whoever possesses the "Ashes" has acquired the powers of G-d and (supposedly) cannot be defeated!

Today, the Arabs are "grasping for straws" and "lying straight through their teeth" to defend their indefensible position, but they do have one aspect of their argument that has some awkward validity.

According to the highest levels of Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, Jews are not supposed to make "Aliyah" (move to Israel) until the time of the Messiah's coming.  This religious belief and doctrine can be found within the Talmud.  Almost two thousand years ago, starting after the destruction of the Second Temple and especially after the failed Bar Kochba revolt in 135 C.E., the Jewish people were forbidden, according to the Talmud (kesubos 111a), to exercise sovereignty over the Holy Land prior to the Messianic era.  However, there are some Judaic sects that strictly observe this belief.  One of these sects is known as the "Neturei Karta," and they are based in Monsey, New York alongside other Ultra-Orthodox Judaic groups in that area.  They are vehemently opposed to Zionism, since they believe that Zionism is strictly secular and has no part in Talmudic Judaism.  According to the Neturei Karta, other supposed Orthodox Jews are violating Talmudic principles by living in and thus supporting the secular or semi-religious State of Israel.  By this reasoning, they believe that all other Jews, even including other sects of traditional Orthodox Rabbinic Judaism, are not real Jews because they violate this one very important principle of the Talmud.  Please note, other Ultra-Orthodox Judaic sects may agree somewhat with the Neturei Karta on this religious Talmudic principle, but these other sects wish to take advantage of life and liberty in the Holy Land before the coming of the Messiah.  In truth, many Ultra-Orthodox Jews don't give a damn about the State of Israel, but they wish to live there in order to take advantage of Jewish government benefits.  From the end of World War II until 1948, many Orthodox Jewish groups opposed (some violently) the creation of a Jewish state.  Therefore, a religious Jewish state in the Holy Land could be considered very questionable.

Earlier within this document, I explained how Rabbi Shloime Twerski convinced me of my non-Jewishness, because I wouldn't accept the entire Talmud "lock, stock, and barrel."  At best, I could be considered nothing more than a Conservative Judaic believer.  The Neturei Karta, along with other specific Jewish groups that agree with them (such as the Satmar sect), have established Ultra-Orthodox Judaism at a new and higher level by defining what true Rabbinical Judaism should be to all Jews.  Anything less is not Jewish according to them.  Any Jew who supports the State of Israel has committed a very grave sin against G-d.  Therefore, Israel as a truly religious Jewish state would have to be considered illegal, and I would agree with that basic premise.  In fact, the great percentage of the Israeli population is secular.  Even the most Orthodox Jews who are presently living in Israel supposedly violate their own religious teachings according to the Neturei Karta.  This is especially true when they try to impose their own interpreted Rabbinic Judaic laws (e.g., strict Sabbath regulations) upon the majority and secular Israeli public.  The Chief Rabbi of Israel represents an improper religious influence, since he is Orthodox and represents only a minority, as were all of his predecessors. 

As stated previously, from the end of World War II until 1948, many Orthodox Jewish groups opposed the creation of a Jewish state.  There was, in fact, some Jewish violence in New York City during that time.  In order to placate these different opinionated Orthodox Jewish groups, agreements were made that within the new State of Israel, an Orthodox Jewish Rabbinate would be established as the religious ruling body over the entire country.  Even though the majority of Israeli citizens would not be Orthodox in their religious practice, the Rabbinate took control over what became a mainly secular and eventually a somewhat atheistic society.  In fact, to most Israelis, just making "Aliyah" and living in the land of Israel is the greatest "mitzvah," and doing so replaces the need or even the requirement for Orthodox Judaic observance.

Conservative and Reform Judaism would make more sense in Israel than the traditional Orthodox Rabbinic traditions, but anything less than Orthodox Judaism has been denied by the Israeli Rabbinate since the founding of the state in 1948.  Only recently, other Jewish denominations have made a little headway in being recognized.  Therefore, from this perspective, the Arabs claim that Israel has no right to exist, since the supposedly most Orthodox Jews (Neturei Karta) do not support Zionism or the State of Israel.  In addition, many Orthodox Jews who presently live in Israel refuse to serve in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and do not support the government wholeheartedly (this position is presently starting to change).  Many Israeli Orthodox Jews do not get involved politically, but there is a growing trend of Orthodox Judaic influence within the Knesset (Israeli Parliament).  The very Orthodox Jews mainly live in Israel only to take advantage of the opportunity to study the Talmud without interference or persecution.  That's what a relatively small percentage of them have been doing for the past 2,000 years, mainly under Islamic rule.  Because Israel is now a Jewish state, some of the Orthodox can take advantage of government subsidies for their religious studies.  Therefore, if, according to the Arabs, a religious Jewish state has no right to exist by even Ultra-Orthodox Jewish standards, could a secular Jewish state then be allowed, if the nations of the world approved?

In 1947, the United Nations voted for the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, as well.  (Please note, a Palestinian Arab State homeland of Transjordan had already been created by the British Mandate of 1922.)  The vote to establish a Jewish state (which became Israel in 1948) was strictly a secular decision.  It was not a religious decision.  The irony of the vote in the U.N. was that the "Eastern Block" of the atheist Soviet Union was in favor of partition, and the U.S.S.R was very hopeful that the Kibbutzim (Jewish style communes already established and expanding throughout Israel) would help promote socialism (instead of democracy) in the new secular State of Israel.  Although most "western nations" also supported the partition of Palestine,  Israel would never have come into existence without the support of the "Eastern Block" in what was a very close U.N. vote.  In fact, the U.S.S.R. was the first country to vote positively for partition.  Again, "G-d works in mysterious ways."  The irony of the way that Israel came into existence is almost mind-boggling.  In a mystical sense, the State of Israel was "born" and became a legitimate member country of the U.N. in 1948.  According to the ancient Hebrew Calendar, we are presently living in the year 5780 (from the creation of Adam), and Abraham, the patriarch of the Jews and Arabs, was born in 1948 (from Adam).  Unusual coincidence?  All Arab states voted against partition and they began the war of 1948 to deny Israel's right to exist, even though a Palestinian Arab homeland had already been created (Transjordan on the east side of the Jordan River) and now an additional Palestinian Arab homeland was to be created at the same time alongside Israel and west of the Jordan River.  The surrounding Arab governments wanted everything or nothing.  Actually, they never considered the possibility of nothing.  They coerced the majority of Arabs living within the entire partitioned area to evacuate their homes, assuring them that they would return after the new state of Israel would be destroyed.  When the supposedly unthinkable happened and Israel won its War of Independence (again, "G-d works in mysterious ways"), the Arab governments used (and continue to use) the Palestinian Arabs as pawns to deflect their failure, stupidity, and corrupt regimes by corralling them into disgusting and horrible living conditions in the West Bank and, especially, the Gaza Strip.

Please note, just because "G-d works in mysterious ways" does not equate Orthodox Judaism with the only valid belief system for G-d fearing Jewish descendants.  Unfortunately, Orthodox Judaism has maintained political control through the Rabbinate and dominates the psychological thought process of Jewish descendants about how to believe in the G-d of Israel and the religious customs that should be observed.  With the discovery of lost Jewish remnants in the world today, such as the Ethiopian Jews who descended from the Southern Kingdom of Judah, we can rightfully deduce that there are righteous Jewish descendants who have established and maintained their concepts of G-d's law without the need of the Talmud, a rabbinate, and any other man-made religious traditions deduced from the written Torah.

Death to Israel was, and still is, the Arab battle cry of Jihad emanating from minarets and mosques throughout the Arab world.  Recently, it's been discovered that within the United States, this same disgusting Jihad is being taught in Arab parochial schools that are funded by Arab countries, such as Saudi Arabia, a supposed U.S. ally.  The "U.S. War on Terrorism" should be considered a sham, if democratic nations allow the preaching and education of religious intolerance, hatred, and legalized lying within their own borders.  (Please note, Islam supposedly permits lying to non Muslims.)  This Arab position has never changed, no matter what peace overtures the Arabs may try to brainwash you into believing.  What the Arabs say to the world is different than what they say, believe, and promote unto themselves (especially their children), and all Arab governments along with practically all Islamic clergy have constantly encouraged lying to the infidels of the United States and the "west."  The basic tenets of Islam have not changed since the dark ages, and they possibly never will.  Thankfully, many aspects of false and improper Christian teaching, which existed for many centuries, are being corrected today.  Christians and Jews are now learning respect for each other.  It has taken many years for this to happen.  The same could be true for the Arabs and all Islamic believers.  However, until religious leaders teach tolerance and real truth from the pulpit, there will be no hope.  Each generation of improperly educated Arab and Islamic believing children creates a greater impasse to world peace.

In 1964, The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was created with Yassir Arafat as its founder and leader.  Israel did not possess or occupy the West Bank or the Gaza Strip at that time.  Therefore, the only reason for the establishment of the PLO (and its "death to Israel" charter) was to drive the Jews into the sea and annihilate Israel. The Palestinians who support the PLO continually give the impression that they are nothing better than a continuation of the biblical Amalekites.   In 1964 (3 years before the famous "6-Day War"), the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were ruled by Arab governments (Jordan and Egypt).  Why didn't the PLO try to establish independence from the incredible squalor and filth that was imposed upon them by the controlling Arab governments?  The hatred that festered in the Palestinian Arab communities was deliberately promoted and controlled by Jordan, Egypt, and the other Arab governments.  It's going to take a long time to cure this stupid and unfounded hatred.  It's not Israel's fault for the Palestinian Arab plight, but the world is being brainwashed by the "Arab Block" into believing that Israel is occupying Palestinian Arab land.  It can't be Palestinian Arab land because the Palestinians gave it up and allowed Jordan and Egypt to rule them.  If Israel grants the Palestinian Arabs a country of their own, those Palestinians should be grateful to Israel for doing what their Arab brethren failed to do.  Until such a time that a true re-education of the Arabs occurs, can Israel survive?  No, not without G-d's help!  G-d will have to continue to "work in mysterious ways."

Lastly, thanks to the enormous successes of President Donald J. Trump and the United States' vastly improved relationship with the State of Israel, our two nations are moving together into a harmony that has not existed before in history. Yes, our two nations will survive and lead the entire world to a successful and holy future!

Table of Contents



An Ancient Hebrew Inscription in New Mexico

Fact or Fraud?


 Who Really Discovered the Americas?

by James D. Tabor, President of United Israel World Union (

The standard textbook wisdom that we all learned from grade school on up is that the Americas were discovered by the Europeans either in 1492 by Columbus, or perhaps even a few hundred years earlier by the Vikings. There seems to be an aversion among the establishment historians to even consider the idea that ancient Mediterranean peoples might have traveled to the Americas in the centuries before our era. Except for certain “fringe” scholarship, particularly promoted by Mormon historians, the standard view is considered indisputable. The very idea that “primitive” peoples from Cyprus, Phoenicia, Greece, or Iberia had the sailing sophistication to cross the Atlantic is thought to be improbable if not absurd.

There are a few notable exceptions. Dr. Cyrus Gordon, one of the greatest living historians of ancient Near Eastern civilizations has promoted the idea that such peoples reached the New World for the past several decades. Actually, when one digs around a bit, it turns out that the historical and archaeological evidence is quite impressive. It has been well documented by Barry Fell in his major study, America B.C. (New York: Pocket Books, 1989).

One of the most fascinating sites Dr. Fell surveys is located south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, 16 miles west on state highway 6 of a little town called Los Lunas. The site has been known as “Mystery Mountain” by the locals for many years. At the foot of a mini-Masada like natural plateau there is an inscription written in paleo-Hebrew. The inscription contains a slightly abridged version of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments. Anyone who is familiar with the Hebrew language, and the well-established ancient Hebrew alphabet used prior to the Common Era, can easily read this inscription.

The question is—how did it get there? Is it a fraud, perpetrated by some pranksters for amusement purposes? If so, it could not be older than the 20th century since the paleo-Hebrew alphabet was only discovered from archaeological inscriptions in the Middle East over the past 100 years. Or, is it possible that it was put there much earlier, by Jews or Israelites who had settled in the area we know as New Mexico when paleo-Hebrew was in common use—that is in the centuries B.C.E. To even suggest such an idea, for most, is to immediately dismiss it. However, when the Los Lunas inscription is placed in the wider context of an abundant amount of evidence, such as that presented by Dr. Fell, that ancient Mediterranean peoples did visit the New World, it becomes not only plausible but perhaps the only logical explanation for the existence of this text.

In September, 1996 I visited the Los Lunas site with a group of associates for an initial survey of the evidence. I have also interviewed Prof. Frank Hibben, local historian and archaeologist from the University of New Mexico, who is convinced the inscription is ancient and thus authentic. He reports that he first saw the text in 1933. At the time it was covered with lichen and patination and was hardly visible. He was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy, back in the 1880s. Thus we have eye-witness evidence, going back over a hundred years, that the inscription existed. This alone is impressive, since it is rather preposterous to imagine some pranksters or forgers operating with a knowledge of paleo-Hebrew in the late 1800s, when this ancient alphabet was not even fully known to the scholars.

Associated with the inscription is the mountain itself, which shows evidence of fortification and ancient habitation, whether by native Americans or whomever. The Decalogue inscription is located near the foot of the mountain, on the north side at the only accessible pathway going up. The top of the mountain is a flat plateau with many ruins. The whole area is covered with drawings on rocks called petroglyphs. One of the most interesting of these petroglyphs is what appears to be a sky-map, laid out on a flat rock, recording the positions of the planets and constellations during a full solar eclipse. Researcher David Deal, to whom we owe credit for a drawing of the site, has identified the eclipse astronomically as occurring on September 15, 107 B. C. E. I have run that date on a sophisticated computer calendar that does conversions to the ancient Hebrew calendar and surprisingly, that date turns out to fall on Tishri 1st, or Rosh HaShanah of that year—107 B.C.E.! Mr. Deal, who first did the astronomical calculations, was not even aware of this correlation. It might well be the case that the ancient Israelites who lived on this mountain, and left their inscription of the Ten Commandments at the “Gate” of the camp (a mezuzah stone), also recorded a full solar eclipse that happened to fall on a very important day in their sacred calendar.

I have become tentatively convinced that the Los Lunas inscription offers solid evidence that ancient Israelites explored and settled in the New World in the centuries before the Common Era. Whether we can precisely date this encampment, based on Mr. Deal’s astronomical evidence, remains in discussion. However, I have little doubt, nor does Dr. Gordon, who is one of the world experts on ancient inscriptions, that the text itself is authentic and was written sometime B.C.E. Beyond this we can not go at this point in time. What is needed is a rigorous archaeological examination of the whole mountain and its human artifacts. It was obvious to us, even from our brief survey in 1996, that the site has been inhabited by successive peoples. We would have to have coin and pottery evidence to more precisely identify these remains and correlate them, if possible, with the inscription itself. The author is in the process of investigating possibilities for just such an investigation, led by qualified experts in archaeology. In the meantime I would encourage any of our Bulletin readers who are interested in this subject to read Dr. Barry Fell’s book, America B.C., which is readily available in major bookstores.




The following chapter is included as an extra bonus for reaching the end of BRIDGING THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN GAP.


By Dennis Prager
© 2004 Creators Syndicate, Inc.


The United States of America is the only country in history to have defined itself as Judeo-Christian. While the Western world has consisted of many Christian countries and consists today of many secular countries, only America has called itself Judeo-Christian. America is also unique in that it has always combined secular government with a society based on religious values.

But what does "Judeo-Christian" mean? We need to know. Along with the belief in liberty – as opposed to, for example, the European belief in equality, the Muslim belief in theocracy, and the Eastern belief in social conformity – Judeo-Christian values are what distinguish America from all other countries. That is why American coins feature these two messages: "In G-d we trust" and "Liberty."

Yet, for all its importance and its repeated mention, the term is not widely understood. It urgently needs to be because it is under ferocious assault, and if we do not understand it, we will be unable to defend it. And if we cannot defend it, America will become as amoral as France, Germany, Russia, et al.

First, Judeo-Christian America has differed from Christian countries in Europe in at least two important ways. One is that the Christians who founded America saw themselves as heirs to the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, as much as to the New. And even more importantly, they strongly identified with the Jews.

For example, Thomas Jefferson wanted the design of the seal of the United States to depict the Jews leaving Egypt. Just as the Hebrews left Egypt and its values, Americans left Europe and its values (if only those who admire Jefferson would continue to take his advice).

Founders and other early Americans probably studied Hebrew, the language of the Old Testament, at least as much as Greek, the language of the New. Yale, founded in 1701, adopted a Hebrew insignia, and Hebrew was compulsory at Harvard until 1787. The words on the Liberty Bell, "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land ...," are from the Torah. Vast numbers of Americans took Hebrew names – like Benjamin Franklin and Cotton Mather (kattan in Hebrew
means "little one" or "younger").

The consequences included a strong Old Testament view of the world – meaning, in part, a strong sense of fighting for earthly justice, an emphasis on laws, a belief in a judging, as well as a loving and forgiving, G-d, and a belief in the chosenness of the Jews which America identified with.

The significance of this belief in American "chosenness" cannot be overstated.

It accounts for the mission that Americans have uniquely felt called to – to spread liberty in the world.

This sense of mission is why more Americans have died for the liberty of others than any other nation's soldiers.

It is why those who today most identify with the Judeo-Christian essence of America are more likely to believe in the moral worthiness of dying to liberate countries – not only Europe, but Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. That is why America stands alone in protecting two little countries threatened with extinction, Israel and Taiwan. That is why conservative Americans are more likely to believe in American exceptionalism – in not seeking, as President Bush put it, a "permission slip" from the United Nations, let alone from Europe.

The second meaning of Judeo-Christian is a belief in the biblical G-d of Israel, in His Ten Commandments and His biblical moral laws. It is a belief in universal, not relative, morality. It is a belief that America must answer morally to this G-d, not to the mortal, usually venal, governments of the world.

That is why those who most affirm Judeo-Christian values lead the fight against redefining marriage. We believe that a pillar of Judeo-Christian values is to encourage the man-woman sexual and marital ideal, and to provide children with the opportunity to benefit from the unique gifts that a man and a woman give a child, gifts that are never replicable by two men alone or two women.

That is why those who most affirm Judeo-Christian values are unmoved by the idea that the war in Iraq is moral if Germany, France, China and Russia say so, but immoral if they oppose it. We ask first what G-d and the Bible would say about liberating Iraq, not what Syria and other members of the U.N. Security Council say.

That is why those who most affirm Judeo-Christian values believe that war, while always tragic, is on more than a few occasions a moral duty. Nothing "Judeo" ever sanctioned pacifism. Of course, the Hebrew prophet Isaiah yearned for the day that nations will beat their swords into plowshares. But another Hebrew prophet, Joel, who is never cited by those who wish to read the secular value of pacifism into the Bible, said precisely the opposite: "Beat your plowshares into swords and your pruning hooks into spears. Let the weakling say, 'I am strong!'"

And that is why those who want Judeo-Christian values to disappear from American public life affirm multiculturalism, seek to remove mention of G-d from all public life, and make Christmas a private, not a national, holiday.

The battle over whether America remains Judeo-Christian or becomes secular like Europe is what this, the Second American Civil War, is about.



Thomas Merton (1916-1968) was a Trappist monk and spent his life inside the walls of a monastery in Kentucky. Even though he was never at Auschwitz, this poetry (written by Charles Cingolani) places him there so as to let his generous sensitivity and theological perspective respond to this horrendous calamity. (Please use your back-button to return to this webpage.) 

This poem from Charles Cingolani presents a unique perspective than what we might be expecting. No this is probably not Anne Frank, but we're usually never exposed to post-capture thoughts and feelings of a young girl in such a predicament. (Please use your back-button to return to this webpage.)



ARMSTRONG, HERBERT W.: The United States and Britain in Prophecy. Pasadena, Calif., Worldwide Church of G-d, 1980.

BAUER, MIKHAEL: The Jubilee Calendar. Self-published Internet Document, 2006.

DIMONT, MAX I.: Jews, G-d and History. New York, N.Y., Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1962.

EISENBERG, RAFAEL: Survival - Israel and Mankind. Jerusalem, Israel, Feldheim Publishers, 1991.

EISENMAN, ROBERT H. & WISE, MICHAEL: The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. Rockport, Mass., Element, Inc., 1993.

FAST, HOWARD: The Jews, Story of a People. New York, N.Y., Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1968.

FRUCHTENBAUM, ARNOLD G.: Hebrew Christianity: Its Theology, History, and Philosophy. Washington, D.C., Canon Press, 1974.

GREENBERG, IRVING: For the Sake of Heaven and Earth - The New Encounter between Judaism and Christianity, Philadelphia, Penn., The Jewish Publication Society, 2004.

HANCOCK, GRAHAM: The Sign and the Seal. New York, N.Y., Crown Publishers, Inc., 1992.

HERTZ, J. H., ed.: Pentateuch and Haftorahs. London, England, Soncino Press, 1961.

HICK, JOHN, ed.: The Myth of G-d Incarnate. Philadelphia, Penn., The Westminster Press, 1977.

THE HOLY BIBLE, KING JAMES VERSION. New York, N.Y., American Bible Society, 1966.

THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. New York, N.Y., Hebrew Publishing Company, 1939.

JONES, VENDYL M.: A Door of Hope - My Search for the Treasures of the Copper Scroll. Springdale, Arkansas, Lightcatcher Books, 2005.

JONES, VENDYL M.: Institute of Judaic-Christian Researcher/Vendyl Jones Research Institutes Researcher. Arlington, Texas, self-printed newspapers, 1991-2009.

JONES, VENDYL M.: Will the Real Jesus Please Stand? Arlington, Texas, Priority Publications Inc., 1983.

LINDSEY, HAL: The Late Great Planet Earth. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House, 1972.

ROBINS, GERARD: Vendyl Jones and the Ark of the Covenant. Self-published Internet Document, 2000

SATINOVER, JEFFREY: Cracking the Bible Code. New York, N.Y., Quill (William Morrow and Company, Inc.), 1998.

SCHOEPS, HANS-JOACHIM: Jewish Christianity. Philadelphia, Penn., Fortress Press, 1969.

SHULMAN, ELIEZER: The Sequence of Events in The Old Testament. Israel, Investment Co. Of Bank Hapoalim and Ministry of Defense - Publishing House, 1987.

STEINBERG, MENACHEM MENDEL: The Torah and Mitzvah Repair Service. Denver, Colorado, self-printed tracts, 1970-1975 (approximately).

STEINSALTZ, ADIN: The Essential Talmud. New York, N.Y., Bantam Books, 1977.

WILSON, IAN: Jesus: The Evidence. San Francisco, California, Harper & Row, 1984.

WYLEN, STEPHEN M.: The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction. New York/Mahwah, N.J., Paulist Press, 1996.


Table of Contents

To send an E-Mail to the author, click on: Howard Rollin. "May G-d be with you always."